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Body fat distribution and other cardiac risk factors among circumpolar Inuit and nGanasan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3552
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1995 Jul;54(3):125-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1995
Author
A. Rode
R J Shephard
Author Affiliation
School of Physical & Health Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1995 Jul;54(3):125-33
Date
Jul-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Arctic Regions
Body constitution
Coronary Disease - ethnology - etiology
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Northwest Territories
Obesity - complications - ethnology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Skinfold thickness
Abstract
Secular trends in skinfold thicknesses and body fat distribution were examined in the adult Inuit of Igloolik, N.W.T. through surveys conducted in 1969/70, 1979/80 and 1989/93. Findings were compared with the nGanasan population of Volochanka (Taimir peninsula, Siberia), who were examined in 1992/3. The skinfold readings of the Inuit have increased over the two decades of observation. Currently, the young male Inuit and nGanasan remain relatively thin, but older Inuit men and the women of both populations are now quite obese relative to subjects from Southern Canada. The male Inuit have also developed a centripetal, coronary-prone pattern of fat distribution, with subscapular/triceps skinfold ratios that now exceed averages for southern Canada. The majority of both Inuit and nGanasan are current smokers and many fail to meet minimal standards of aerobic performance. Plasma cholesterol levels are still not very high, but a substantial proportion of the nGanasan are affected by hypertension; their source of animal protein is reindeer meat rather than the marine mammals eaten in Igloolik. Alcohol consumption is also higher in Volochanka than in Igloolik. Action is needed to control smoking, reduce body fat content and increase physical activity if circumpolar populations are not to experience an epidemic of cardiovascular disease.
PubMed ID
7669126 View in PubMed
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Is South Asian ethnicity an independent cardiovascular risk factor?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170384
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2006 Mar 1;22(3):193-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2006
Author
Milan Gupta
Stephanie Brister
Author Affiliation
William Osler Health Center, Brampton, Ontario. mkgupta@rogers.com
Source
Can J Cardiol. 2006 Mar 1;22(3):193-7
Date
Mar-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asia
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Canada - epidemiology
Coronary Disease - ethnology - etiology - prevention & control
Humans
Insulin Resistance - ethnology
Metabolic Syndrome X - complications - ethnology
Obesity - complications - ethnology
Risk factors
Abstract
People of South Asian origin constitute a large, visible minority in Canada and are known to be at heightened risk for premature coronary artery disease. Conventional risk factors clearly confer risk in South Asians but do not adequately explain their excess risk compared with other populations. Rates of smoking, hypertension and levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol tend to be similar or lower in South Asians, although diabetes is more prevalent. Recent studies have suggested that the metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity may play a causative role in both the prevalence of diabetes and the premature atherosclerosis noted in South Asians. It is possible that genetically susceptible individuals develop abdominal obesity and insulin resistance when exposed to a toxic environment of reduced energy expenditure and increased caloric consumption. This pattern is increasingly noted in parallel with urbanization, suggesting that the increased cardiovascular risk in South Asians may be preventable through lifestyle interventions and the judicious use of medicines to attain optimal levels of blood pressure, lipids and glucose.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16520847 View in PubMed
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Metabolic syndrome in aboriginal Canadians: prevalence and genetic associations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174976
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jan;184(1):121-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Rebecca L Pollex
Anthony J G Hanley
Bernard Zinman
Stewart B Harris
Hafiz M R Khan
Robert A Hegele
Author Affiliation
Blackburn Cardiovascular Genetics Laboratory, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Canada.
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2006 Jan;184(1):121-9
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Apolipoprotein C-III
Apolipoproteins C - blood - genetics
Coronary Disease - ethnology - etiology
Female
Gene Frequency
Genotype
Humans
Indians, North American
Linkage Disequilibrium
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - complications - ethnology - genetics
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Abstract
The prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Ontario Oji-Cree are among the world's highest. Since metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases risk of T2DM and CHD, we characterized prevalence and putative genetic determinants of MetS in Oji-Cree.
In 515 adult (> or = 18 years old) and 115 adolescent ( or = 35 years of age, had MetS. Furthermore, 33.9 and 8.7% of female Oji-Cree adults and adolescents, respectively, had MetS. Increased waist girth and depressed HDL cholesterol were the most prevalent individual MetS components, while increased blood pressure was least prevalent. AGT T174M, GNB3 825C>T, and APOC3 -455T>C genotypes were significantly associated with MetS (P = 0.018, 0.0056, and 0.029, respectively) for female adults, whereas FABP2 A54T genotype was associated with MetS (P = 0.040) for female adolescents.
The high MetS prevalence in Oji-Cree adults, especially women, is consistent with their high risk of T2DM and CHD. Functional polymorphisms in three candidate genes for plasma lipoproteins and blood pressure were associated with MetS in adult Oji-Cree. Furthermore, several female adolescents met the adult MetS criteria, suggesting that the genesis of MetS begins in youth, especially among aboriginal females.
PubMed ID
15869758 View in PubMed
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Migration and smoking: an epidemiological study of Finnish twins in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53128
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2005;33(4):285-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Lena Jörgensen
Niklas Hammar
Jaakko Kaprio
Markku Koskenvuo
Ake Svensson
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Stockholm Centre for Public Health, Sweden. lena.jorgensen@sll.se
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2005;33(4):285-91
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Coronary Disease - ethnology - etiology
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Finland - ethnology
Humans
Male
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - ethnology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology - ethnology
Twins
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Male migrants from Finland to Sweden have been found to have a reduced risk of coronary heart disease after several years in Sweden. Changes in smoking habits may contribute to this reduced risk. AIMS: A study was undertaken to compare smoking habits in Finnish migrants to Sweden and subjects always living in Finland and to analyse whether the migration may have influenced smoking. METHODS: The study population consisted of same-sex twin pairs born in Finland younger than 76 years with at least one twin that had migrated to Sweden (n = 1,083 pairs). Smoking habits obtained by mailed questionnaire were compared in migration-discordant twin pairs to take into account early childhood and genetic factors. RESULTS: Immigrants and returnees with a history of smoking had predominantly started to smoke before the migration. Among women, immigrants to Sweden smoked more than never migrants in Finland, odds ratio (OR) 2.1 for current smokers (95% confidence interval CI 1.4-3.3) but this difference was already present before migration. In men there were essentially no differences in smoking prevalence between immigrants and never migrants but heavy smoking was less common among immigrants than among never migrant smokers, OR 0.5 (95% CI 0.2-0.9) and migration was associated with a greater propensity to cease smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Migration from Finland to Sweden does not seem to have had a strong influence on smoking among migrants. A favourable trend in smoking habits after migration may in part have contributed to reduced mortality and incidence of coronary heart disease in male Finnish migrants after several years in Sweden.
PubMed ID
16087491 View in PubMed
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Population-based study of high plasma C-reactive protein concentrations among the Inuit of Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119609
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Marie-Eve Labonté
Eric Dewailly
Marie-Ludivine Chateau-Degat
Patrick Couture
Benoît Lamarche
Author Affiliation
Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec, QC, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
C-Reactive Protein - analysis - genetics
Coronary Disease - ethnology - etiology
Diabetes Complications - ethnology
Female
Humans
Hypertension - complications - ethnology
Inuits - genetics
Life Style - ethnology
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - complications - ethnology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Waist Circumference
Young Adult
Abstract
The shift away from traditional lifestyle in the Inuit population over the past few decades has been associated with an increased prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure (BP) and diabetes. However, the impact of this transition on the pro-inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has not been documented.
To examine the prevalence of elevated plasma hs-CRP concentrations in Inuit from Nunavik in the province of Quebec (Canada) and identify anthropometric, biochemical and lifestyle risk factors associated with elevated hs-CRP.
A population-representative sample of 801 Inuit residents from 14 villages of Nunavik, aged between 18 and 74 years, was included in the analyses. Subjects participated in a clinical session and completed questionnaires on lifestyle. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for elevated hs-CRP.
Elevated plasma hs-CRP concentrations (= 2 mg/L) were present in 32.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 29.5-35.8) of the Inuit adult population and were more prevalent among women than among men (36.7% vs. 29.0%, p=0.007). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that every 1 mmHg increase in systolic BP was associated with a 3% increase in the odds of having hs-CRP concentrations = 2 mg/L in the Inuit population (95% CI 1.01-1.04). The combination of older age (= 50 vs.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23087913 View in PubMed
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