Experiments were conducted on 18 dogs using an in situ blood-perfused canine heart model. Intracoronary infusion of AMP resulted in increased ATP and total adenine nucleotide levels. On reperfusion following a 15-min period of ischemia, ATP and total adenine nucleotide levels were significantly higher than control. Most important, contractile function recovered more rapidly in the AMP-treated dogs. It is therefore concluded that the delayed functional recovery noted after periods of ischemia is likely to be a direct result of delayed ATP resynthesis.
The in-hospital management and risk of death of 101 patients 70 years of age or older with acute myocardial infarction in 1987 (group 1) were compared with management and risk for 106 temporally matched patients less than 70 years old (group 2). In group 1, 49% had histories of previous myocardial infarction, compared to 25% in group 2 (P less than 0.001), and 23% of group 1 presented without cardiac pain, versus 7% of group 2 (P less than 0.001). Among the younger patients, other conventional risk factors were, in contrast, more common (Q wave infarction 84% in group 2 versus 70% in group 1; P less than 0.05) or higher (peak creatine kinase values 2222 iu/L in group 2 versus 1366 iu/L in group 1; P less than 0.001). Prior to infarction, all cardiac drugs were used more frequently in the older group 1 patients, whereas post infarction thrombolysis, beta-blockers and acetylsalicylic acid use were all more common (P less than 0.01 to P less than 0.001) in the younger group 2 patients. Post infarction exercise testing, left ventricular ejection fraction calculations and coronary angiography were all performed less frequently in group 1 (P less than 0.001). The in-hospital mortality was 35% for group 1 versus 7% for group 2 (P less than 0.001). Among all 207 study subjects, multiple logistic regression revealed thrombolysis, absence of cardiac pain, and age 70 years or older to be associated with the greatest relative mortality risk. Increased relative risk to a lesser degree was associated with previous infarction, male sex and post infarction use of antiarrhythmic medication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
BACKGROUND: The entire risk factor profile should be taken into account when considering initiating cholesterol lowering drug treatment. Recent treatment guidelines are therefore based on the absolute risk of coronary heart disease. We estimated at what coronary risk it is cost-effective to initiate cholesterol lowering drug treatment in primary prevention for men and women of different ages in Sweden. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness was estimated as the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained of cholesterol lowering drug treatment. Treatment was assumed to lower the risk of coronary heart disease by 31%. The analysis was carried out from a societal perspective including both direct and indirect costs of the intervention and morbidity, and the full future costs of decreased mortality. The coronary risk, in a Markov model of coronary heart disease, was raised until the cost per QALY gained corresponded to a specific threshold value per QALY gained. Three different threshold values were used: $40,000, $60,000 and $100,000 per QALY gained. RESULTS: The risk cut-off value for when treatment is cost-effective varied with age and gender. If society is willing to pay $60,000 to gain a QALY it was cost-effective to initiate treatment if the 5-year-risk of coronary heart disease exceeded 2.4% for 35-year-old men, 4.6% for 50-year-old men, and 10.4% for 70-year-old men. The corresponding risk cut-off values for women were 2.0%, 3.5% and 9.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The results can serve as a basis for treatment guidelines based on cost-effectiveness.
Antihypertensive (AH) agents have been shown to reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events including chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the impact of changes in patterns of AH agents use on CHF is unknown. Our objective was to estimate to which different patterns of AH agent use is associated with the occurrence of CHF in a population-based study.
A cohort of 82 320 patients was reconstructed using the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec's databases. Patients were eligible if they were between 45 to 85 years of age, had no indication of cardiovascular disease and were newly treated with AH therapy between 1999 and 2004. A nested case-control design was used to study the occurrence of CHF. Every case of CHF was matched for age and duration of follow-up to a maximum of 15 randomly selected controls. Adherence level was reported as a medication possession ratio. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the rate ratio (RR) of CHF adjusting for different covariables. The mean patient age was 65 years, 37% were male, 8% had diabetes, 19% had dyslipidaemia and mean time of follow-up at 2.7 years. High adherence level (95%) to AH therapy compared with lower adherence level (60%) was associated with an additional reduction of CHF events (RR: 0.89; 0.80-0.99). Risk factors for CHF were being on social assistance, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, higher chronic disease score and developing a cardiovascular condition during follow-up.
Our study suggests that a better adherence is associated with a significant risk reduction of CHF. Adherence to AH therapy needs to be improved to optimize benefits.
BACKGROUND: Many patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) are not managed adequately, and we often fail to reach treatment targets. AIM: To investigate if knowledge of risk factors for CHD, measured by a questionnaire, would show any relation to advice to compliance to lifestyle changes to attain treatment goals and adherence to drug therapy. METHOD: Men and women
Increasing drug costs are a concern in Sweden. The costs for statin treatment are considerable, and among those increasing most rapidly (by 30-35% per year). Our survey of eligibility for statin treatment in Stockholm according to current Swedish recommendations (i.e. patients 100 M extra for patients > 75 years and/or high cardiovascular risk. We propose that individual risk assessments should replace crude patient group recommendations to obtain reasonable "numbers needed to treat", i.e. to optimize the expenditure on statins and cost-effectiveness of the therapy. Prioritization of drug expenditures (within and between patient categories) must be debated, and medical needs must be made clear to those who determine the medical budget.
Patients with schizophrenia have excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies suggest that this may be partly due to inadequate somatic treatment and care, such as non-optimal use of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive pharmacotherapy, but longitudinal studies on such aetiological pathways are scarce.
We investigated the use of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive pharmacotherapy, and the risk of hospitalization for and death from coronary heart disease and stroke among patients with schizophrenia in a birth cohort of 12 939 subjects (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study). This cohort was followed for over 30 adult years by using national databases on cardio- and cerebrovascular hospitalizations and mortality and on reimbursement entitlements and use of drugs for treatment of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, coronary heart disease and diabetes.
Individuals with schizophrenia had a higher risk of hospitalization for coronary heart disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.57], and mortality from this disease was markedly higher (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.70-5.00), particularly among women (p=0.001 for women, p=0.008 for men). Women with schizophrenia had also marginally increased stroke mortality (p=0.06). However, patients with schizophrenia used less lipid-lowering (odds ratio 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.80) and antihypertensive drug treatment (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22-0.61).
In this longitudinal study, coronary heart disease morbidity was increased and coronary heart disease mortality markedly increased in patients, especially in women with schizophrenia. These patients nevertheless received less antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment.