Achieving cholesterol targets by individualizing starting doses of statin according to baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk category: the CANadians Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (CanACTFAST) study.
Despite an increasing body of evidence on the benefit of lowering elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), there is still considerable concern that patients are not achieving target LDL-C levels.
The CANadians Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (CanACTFAST) trial tested whether an algorithm-based statin dosing approach would enable patients to achieve LDL-C and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio targets quickly.
Subjects requiring statin therapy, but with an LDL-C level of 5.7 mmol/L or lower, and triglycerides of 6.8 mmol/L or lower at screening participated in the 12-week study, which had two open-label, six-week phases: a treatment period during which patients received 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg or 80 mg of atorvastatin based on an algorithm incorporating baseline LDL-C value and cardiovascular risk; and patients who achieved both LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets at six weeks continued on the same atorvastatin dose. Patients who did not achieve both targets received dose uptitration using a single-step titration regimen. The primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of patients achieving target LDL-C levels after 12 weeks.
Of 2016 subjects screened at 88 Canadian sites, 1258 were assigned to a study drug (1101 were statin-free and 157 were statin-treated at baseline). The proportion of subjects who achieved LDL-C targets after 12 weeks of treatment was 86% (95% CI 84% to 88%) for statin-free patients and 54% (95% CI 46% to 61%) for statin-treated patients. Overall, 1003 subjects (80%; 95% CI 78% to 82%) achieved both lipid targets.
Algorithm-based statin dosing enables patients to achieve LDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio targets quickly, with either no titration or a single titration.
To study value of C reactive protein (CRP) in development of atherosclerotic lesion of vascular wall and its relation to extent of pathological process in patients with stable coronary artery disease.
We studied 307 patients with stable coronary artery disease (278 men, 29 women) aged 33 - 80 years (mean age 58 years) with arterial atherosclerosis of various severity and extent. All patients were subjected to clinical, biochemical, and instrumental examination. Coronary angiography was performed when indicated. Analysis of traditional risk factors was also carried out. CRP was measured with high sensitivity method.
Elevated CRP level (> 3 mg/1) was found in 34% of patients. Patients who had atherosclerotic changes (stenosing plaques) in carotid, pelvic or leg arteries, celiac trunk, renal and mesenteric arteries (group 2, n=37) had significantly higher CRP concentrations (p=0.002) than patients who had only atherosclerosis in coronary arteries (group 1, n=270). CRP concentration did not correlate with number of stenosed coronary vessels according to coronary angiographic findings. Patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes and smokers had significantly higher CRP concentrations ( =0.013, =0.002, =0.004, respectively).
In patients with stable coronary artery disease combination of coronary and peripheral atherosclerosis is associated with increased CRP concentration. CRP and data of coronary angiography in patients with stable coronary artery disease are essentially independent factors. Elevated CRP level is associated with traditional risk factors of coronary artery disease (smoking, hypertension, type 2 diabetes).
To evaluate the effect of a 12-month course of weekly lipid apheresis on vein graft patency after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with hyperlipidemia refractory to statins.
In a 12-month prospective controlled clinical trial we enrolled 34 male patients (mean age 57 ± 8 years) who passed through successful CABG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level >2.6 mmol/L prior to the operation despite statin treatment. Patients were allocated into 2 groups: active (n = 17, weekly apheresis by cascade plasma filtration (CPF) plus atorvastatin), and control (n = 17, atorvastatin alone). Graft patency was evaluated by multislice computed tomography at 3 months and by angiography at 12 months after an operation.
Both groups were comparable in clinical and biochemical characteristics. During each CPF procedure, LDL-C level decreased by 64 ± 9%, apoB - by 65 ± 8%, Lp(a) - by 52 ± 15%,; these changes were significant compared to baseline and the control group. Mean net difference in LDL-C level between apheresis and control groups was 1.1 ± 0.3 mmol/L. Vein graft patency at study end was 88.2% (45 of 51) in the apheresis group versus 72.7% (40 of 55) in the control group (p = 0.05). Use of apheresis was associated with decreased vein graft occlusions by 46%: relative risk 0.54; 95% confidence interval 0.27 to 1.02; p = 0.05.
Our data suggest that the use of lipoprotein apheresis with CPF results in a better vein graft patency during the first year after CABG in patients with hyperlipidemia refractory to statins.
Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P-NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria receiving intensive multifactorial treatment.
Echocardiography including tissue Doppler imaging and P-NT-proBNP measurements were performed in 200 patients without prior CAD. Patients with P-NT-proBNP > 45.2 ng/L and/or coronary calcium score = 400 were stratified as high risk patients for CAD(n = 133) and examined for significant CAD by myocardial perfusion imaging and/or CT-angiography and/or coronary angiography.
LV mass index was 41.2 ± 10.9 g/m2.7 and 48 (24%) patients had LV hypertrophy. LA and RA dilatation were found in 54(27%) and 45(23%) patients, respectively, and LV diastolic dysfunction was found in 109(55%) patients. Patients with increased P-NT-proBNP levels did not have more major echocardiographic abnormalities. In 70(53%) of 133 high risk patients significant CAD was demonstrated and patients with LV hypertrophy had increased risk of significant CAD(adjusted odd ratio[CI] was 4.53[1.14-18.06]).
Among asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment, P-NT-proBNP levels is not associated with echocardiographic abnormalities. LV diastolic dysfunction was frequently observed, whereas LV hypertrophy was less frequent but associated with significant CAD.
Cites: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 May;278(5):H1500-610775127
Cites: Am J Cardiol. 2001 Nov 15;88(10):1163-811703964
To investigate the tracking of serum total cholesterol (TC) during childhood.
All children born during 1981-1982 in a rural community of eastern Finland were followed at 6 mo, 7 y and 15 y of age. The full follow-up period was completed by 138 out of 205 children, of whom 82 (33 girls) had TC measured at 7 y and 15 y of age (-7 y, -15 y). The main outcome measurement was TC (mmol/L).
TC-7 y was significantly associated with TC-15 y (r = 0.655; p-value or = 5.0 mmol/L in at least one parent) (beta = 0.58; p-value = 0.030). Birthweight had no significant association with TC during childhood.
The study confirmed the tracking of TC during childhood. The identification of children at risk of developing high TC during adolescence should take into consideration the child's previous TC values during childhood and parental TC status.