European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) is a valuable tool in control of the quality of cardiac surgery. However, the validity of the risk score for the individual patient may be questioned. The present study was carried out to investigate whether the continued fall in short-term mortality reflects an actual improvement in late mortality, and subsequently, to investigate EuroSCORE as predictor of 1-year mortality.
A population-based cohort study of 25,602 patients from a 12-year period from three public university hospitals undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve surgery. Analysis was carried out based on EuroSCORE, age and co-morbidity factors (residual EuroSCORE).
During the period the average age increased from 65.1 ± 10.0 years to 68.9 ± 10.7 years (P
Comment In: Ann Card Anaesth. 2015 Apr-Jun;18(2):143-425849680
This study describes the influence of complete revascularization on the long term survival of patients following coronary artery bypass surgery. The patient population consists of 100 consecutive patients discharged from our department after undergoing a coronary bypass operation between November 1973 and July 1978. Patients who survived less than 30 days postoperatively are excluded from the study. The patient population consists of 87 males and 13 females. Mean age was 52.2 years at time of surgery. The rate of revascularization was estimated by coronary angiography, performed between one and 34 months postoperatively, in contrast to other similar studies found in the literature, where such estimation was performed peroperatively. Twenty-five of 86 patients were completely revascularized at postoperative angiographic estimation. Long term survival for the patient population and for the group of completely revascularized patients were compared to the expected survival of the Danish background population (comparable age and sex). Long term survival for the patient population as a whole was similar to that found in similar studies. There was an expected increased mortality compared to the Danish background population.
An increasing number of octogenarians are being subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The purpose of this study was to examine age-dependent trends in postoperative mortality and preoperative comorbidity over time following CABG.
All patients who underwent isolated CABG surgery between January 1996 and December 2012 in Denmark were included. Patients were identified through nationwide administrative registers. Age was categorized into five different groups and time into three periods to see if mortality and preoperative comorbidity had changed over time. Predictors of 30-day mortality were analysed in a multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models and survival at 1 and 5 years was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves.
A total of 38 830 patients were included; the median age was 65.4 ± 9.5 years, increasing over time to 66.6 ± 9.5 years. Males comprised 80%. The number of octogenarians was 1488 (4%). The median survival was 14.7 years (60-69 years), 10.7 years (70-74 years), 8.9 years (75-79 years) and 7.2 years (=80 years). The 30-day mortality rate was 3%, increasing with age (1% in patients 80 years), respectively. The proportion of patients >75 years increased from 10 to 20% during the study period as well as the proportion of patients undergoing urgent or emergency surgery. The burden of comorbidities increased over time, e.g. congestive heart failure 13-17%, diabetes 12-21%, stroke 9-11%, in all age groups. Age and emergency surgery were the main predictors of 30-day mortality: age >80 years [hazard ratio (HR): 5.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.41-7.50], emergency surgery (HR: 5.23, 95% CI: 4.38-6.25).
Patients are getting older at the time of surgery and have a heavier burden of comorbidities than before. The proportion of patients undergoing urgent or emergency surgery increased with age and over time. Despite this, the 30-day mortality decreased over time and long-term survival increased, except in octogenarians where it was stable. Octogenarians had substantially higher 30-day mortality compared with younger patients but surgery can be performed with acceptable risks and good long-term outcomes.
Our purpose was to examine the feasibility of implementing an ambulatory surveillance system for monitoring patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation following cardiac hospitalizations.
This study consists of 1208 consecutive referrals to cardiac rehabilitation between October 2007 and April 2008. Patient attendance at cardiac rehabilitation, waiting times for cardiac rehabilitation, and adverse events while waiting for cardiac rehabilitation were tracked by telephone surveillance by a nurse.
Among the 1208 consecutive patients referred, only 44.7% attended cardiac rehabilitation; 36.4% of referred patients were known not to have attended any cardiac rehabilitation, while an additional 18.9% of referred patients were lost to follow-up. Among the 456 referred patients who attended the cardiac rehabilitation program, 19 (4.2%) experienced an adverse event while in the queue (13 of which were for cardiovascular hospitalizations with no deaths), with mean waiting times of 20 days and 24 days among those without and with adverse events, respectively. Among the 440 referred patients who were known not to have attended any cardiac rehabilitation program, 114 (25.9%) had adverse clinical events while in the queue; 46 of these events required cardiac hospitalization and 8 patients died.
Ambulatory surveillance for cardiac rehabilitation referrals is feasible. The high adverse event rates in the queue, particularly among patients who are referred but who do not attend cardiac rehabilitation programs, underscores the importance of ambulatory referral surveillance systems for cardiac rehabilitation following cardiac hospitalizations.
Depression is common in patients with coronary artery disease and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous reports on the relationship between antidepressant use before coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and survival are conflicting. Our aim was to study the association between preoperative antidepressant use and survival following CABG.
We identified all patients who underwent primary isolated non-emergent CABG in Sweden between 2006 and 2008. We used the SWEDEHEART registry and the Swedish National Patient Register to acquire information about baseline characteristics, and the national Prescribed Drug Register to obtain data regarding exposure, defined as at least one antidepressant prescription dispensed before surgery.
Of the 10,884 patients identified, 1171 (11%) were treated with antidepressants before surgery. Unadjusted 4-year survival was 89% in the antidepressant group compared with 92% in the group without antidepressant use (p=0.002). After multivariable adjustment, antidepressant use was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.77), compared with non-use of antidepressants. Antidepressant use was also associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization (HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.19-1.65) and the composite endpoint rehospitalization or death (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.26-1.65).
Among patients who underwent contemporary primary isolated CABG on a nonemergency basis in Sweden, there was a strong and statistically significant association between antidepressant use prior to surgery and long-term survival.
AIMS: Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) below the diagnostic threshold for diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular pathology and increased mortality after percutaneous coronary interventions. The study goal was to determine whether pre-operative fasting blood glucose (fB-glu) is associated with an increased mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS AND RESULTS: During 2001-03, 1895 patients underwent primary CABG [clinical DM (CDM) in 440/1895; complete data on fB-glu for n=1375/1455]. Using pre-operative fB-glu, non-diabetics were categorized as having normal fB-glu ( or =6.1 mmol/L). fB-glu was normal in 59%. The relative risks of 30 day and 1 year mortality compared with patients with normal fB-glu was 1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-5.5] and 2.9 (CI: 0.8-11.2) with IFG, 2.8 (CI: 1.1-7.2) and 1.9 (CI: 0.5-6.3) with SDM vs. 1.8 (CI: 0.8-4.0) and 1.6 (CI: 0.6-4.3) if CDM, respectively. The receiver operator characteristic area for the continuous variable fB-glu and 1 year mortality was 0.65 (P=0.002). CONCLUSION: The elevated risk of death after CABG surgery known previously to be associated with CDM seems also to be shared by a group of similar size that includes patients with IFG and undiagnosed DM.
We sought to determine whether more comprehensive risk-adjustment models have a significant impact on hospital risk-adjusted mortality rates after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in Ontario, Canada.
The Working Group Panel on the Collaborative CABG Database Project has categorized 44 clinical variables into 7 core, 13 level 1 and 24 level 2 variables, to reflect their relative importance in determining short-term mortality after CABG.
Using clinical data for all 5,517 patients undergoing isolated CABG in Ontario in 1993, we developed 12 increasingly comprehensive risk-adjustment models using logistic regression analysis of 6 of the Panel's core variables and 6 of the Panel's level 1 variables. We studied how the risk-adjusted mortality rates of the nine cardiac surgery hospitals in Ontario changed as more variables were included in these models.
Incorporating six of the core variables in a risk-adjustment model led to a model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.77. The ROC curve area slightly improved to 0.79 with the inclusion of six additional level 1 variables (p = 0.063). Hospital risk-adjusted mortality rates and relative rankings stabilized after adjusting for six core variables. Adding an additional six level 1 variables to a risk-adjustment model had minimal impact on overall results.
A small number of core variables appear to be sufficient for fairly comparing risk-adjusted mortality rates after CABG across hospitals in Ontario. For efficient interprovider comparisons, risk-adjustment models for CABG could be simplified so that only essential variables are included in these models.
The associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or diabetes mellitus (DM) on long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of MetS and DM on the 16-year survival after CABG.
Diabetic and metabolic status together with relevant cardiovascular data was established in 910 CABG patients operated in 1993-94. They were divided in three groups as follows: neither DM nor MetS (375 patients), MetS alone (279 patients) and DM with or without MetS (256 patients). The 16-year follow-up of patient survival was carried out using national health databases. The relative survival rates were analyzed using the Life Table method comparing the observed survival rates of three patient groups to the rates based on age-, sex- and time-specific life tables for the whole population in Finland. To study the independent significance of MetS and DM for clinical outcome, multivariate analysis was made using an optimizing stepwise procedure based on the Bayesian approach.
Bayesian multivariate analysis revealed together six variables to predict clinical outcome (2 months to 16 years) in relation to the national background population, i.e. age, diabetes, left ventricular ejection fraction, BMI, perfusion time during the CABG and peripheral arterial disease. Our principal finding was that after postoperative period the 16-year prognosis of patients with neither DM nor MetS was better than that of the age-, sex-and time-matched background population (relative survival against background population 1.037, p