In the summers of 2001 and 2002, we quantitatively sampled human-biting flies in twelve sites located 1.6 to 63 km from a large copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. We collected 429 specimens of three species of Ceratopogonidae, 92 specimens of seven species of Culicidae, 76 specimens of seven species of Tabanidae, and 4,788 specimens of 19 species of Simuliidae. Culicoides chiropterus was for the first time reported from the Kola Peninsula. Catches of Culicidae and Simuliidae decreased near the smelter, presumably due to the combined action of toxicity of pollutants, pollution-induced forest damage, and decline in vertebrate density. An abundance of Ceratopogonidae and Tabanidae, the size of the most common black fly species, Simulium pusillum, and the diversity of all families did not change along the pollution gradient.
We analyzed baseline and 12-month follow-up interview data from 98 women who had volunteered to use an experimental intracervical device (ICD) and from 155 women who had been randomly assigned to two control groups, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD; N = 86) and the copper Nova-T IUD (N = 69). All participants were clinic patients in Helsinki, Finland. Initial analysis of 12-month discontinuation data indicated that a significantly higher percent of ICD users (22.4) discontinued their device than did either LNG-IUD (7.0) or Nova-T (8.7) users. However, we were no longer able to detect significant differences in discontinuation after controlling for baseline variables that assessed predisposition to be dissatisfied with contraception in general. Adjusted probabilities of discontinuing the ICD, LNG-IUD, and Nova-T were 11.8%, 6.2% and 7.9%, respectively. These data indicate that the ICD is likely to be acceptable to Helsinki clinic patients; moreover, they suggest a definite place for hormonal intrauterine devices in the contraceptive armamentarium. Most importantly, the methodology used here can be generalized to acceptability studies of other contraceptive devices and drugs undergoing Phase I and early Phase II clinical trials (in situations where randomization may not be feasible) in order to identify and control for the bias introduced by nonrandom assignment procedures.
Cadmium, zinc, and copper from placental tissue and blood samples at the first trimester (n = 64) and at term (n = 152) were analyzed; the welfare of newborns and placental 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities in vitro were determined. The study material was collected from Finland, Estonia, and Russia. The results demonstrate that Cd starts to accumulate in the placenta during the first trimester and that Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher at the first trimester than at term. Among nonsmokers a negative correlation was found between placental Cu content and birth weight of neonates. Among smokers a positive correlation between placental Zn content and birth weight and ECOD activity was found. The birth weights correlated inversely with the length of time the mothers smoked. The highest Cd concentrations were detected in the samples collected from St. Petersburg. The data demonstrate an inverse accumulation of Zn and Cd throughout the pregnancy in the placenta and maternal blood samples. Zn may act as a positive marker or even an enzymatic enhancement for the human placental vital functions. Smoking, parity, age, and especially the place of residence affect the Cd, Zn, and Cu contents and ratios in placenta and mother's blood.
An environmental survey was performed in Lake Kyrtj?nn, a small lake within an abandoned shooting range in the south of Norway. In Lake Kyrtj?nn the total water concentrations of Pb (14?g/L), Cu (6.1?g/L) and Sb (1.3?g/L) were elevated compared to the nearby reference Lake Stitj?nn, where the total concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb were 0.76, 1.8 and 0.12?g/L, respectively. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Kyrtj?nn had very high levels of Pb in bone (104mg/kg w.w.), kidney (161mg/kg w.w.) and the gills (137mg/kg d.w), and a strong inhibition of the ALA-D enzyme activity were observed in the blood (24% of control). Dry fertilized brown trout eggs were placed in the small outlet streams from Lake Kyrtj?nn and the reference lake for 6 months, and the concentrations of Pb and Cu in eggs from the Lake Kyrtj?nn stream were significantly higher than in eggs from the reference. More than 90% of Pb accumulated in the egg shell, whereas more than 80% of the Cu and Zn accumulated in the egg interior. Pb in the lake sediments was elevated in the upper 2-5cm layer (410-2700mg/kg d.w), and was predominantly associated with redox sensitive fractions (e.g., organic materials, hydroxides) indicating low potential mobility and bioavailability of the deposited Pb. Only minor amounts of Cu and Sb were deposited in the sediments. The present work showed that the adult brown trout, as well as fertilized eggs and alevins, may be subjected to increased stress due to chronic exposure to Pb, whereas exposure to Cu, Zn and Sb were of less importance.
Dental amalgam restorations are a significant source of mercury exposure in the human population, but their potential to cause systemic health effects is highly disputed. We examined effects on the immune system by giving genetically mercury-susceptible Brown Norway (BN) rats and mercury-resistant Lewis (LE) rats silver amalgam restorations in 4 molars of the upper jaw, causing a body burden similar to that described in human amalgam-bearers (from 250 to 375 mg amalgam/kg body weight). BN rats with amalgam restorations, compared with control rats given composite resinous restorations, developed a rapid activation of the immune system, with a maximum 12-fold increase of the plasma IgE concentration after 3 wks (p 0.05). After 12 wks, BN rats with amalgam restorations showed significantly increased (p spleen > cerebrum occipital lobe > cerebellum > liver > thymus, and the tissue silver concentration was significantly (p
Alcohol intake and serum copper, selenium, magnesium, iron and zinc were investigated in 85 subjects, 48 males and 37 females. Alcohol intake was measured with a questionnaire probing alcohol intake during the preceding 30 days. Mean average daily intake among males was 119.7 g (range 0-622.3 g) and among females 32.1 g (range 0-378.5 g), and the mean consumption per drinking day among males was 208.5 g (range 0-666.7 g) and among females 63.8 g (range 0-63.8 g). Among males alcohol intake per drinking day correlated positively with serum copper (r = 0.50; P less than 0.001) and negatively with serum selenium (r = -0.49; P less than 0.001) and magnesium (r = 0.40; P less than 0.01). Likewise, among females alcohol intake per drinking day correlated positively with serum copper (r = 0.54; P less than 0.01) and negatively with serum magnesium (r = -0.36; P less than 0.05). Serum selenium concentration was negatively and significantly correlated with average daily intake (r = -0.34; P less than 0.05) but not with intake per drinking day. No significant correlations were found between alcohol intake and serum zinc or iron levels. Only two men, both abstainers, had abnormally low serum zinc level, and two other men (average daily alcohol intake less than 37 g) and two women (average daily alcohol intake less than 15 g) had abnormally high serum iron level. Alcohol intake was associated with high serum copper and low serum magnesium and selenium levels.
Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm(-2)), concentration of enhancing agent (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and remediation times (21, 42 and 117 d) for the removal of Cu and Cr from a calcareous soil. To gain insight on metal behavior, soil solution was periodically collected using suction cups. It was seen that current densities higher than 1.0 mA cm(-2) did not increase removal and thus using too high current densities can be a waste of energy. Desorption rate is important and both remediation time and ammonium citrate concentration are relevant parameters. It was possible to collect soil solution samples following an adaptation of the experimental set-up to ensure continuous supply of ammonium citrate to the soil in order to keep it saturated during the remediation. Monitoring soil solution gives valuable information on the evolution of remediation and helps deciding when the soil is remediated. Final concentrations in the soil ranged from 220 to 360 mg Cu kg(-1) (removals: 78-86%) and 440-590 mg Cr kg(-1) (removals: 35-51%), being within the 500 mg kg(-1) limit for a clean soil only for Cu. While further optimization is still required for Cr, the removal percentages are the highest achieved so far, for a real Cu and Cr-contaminated, calcareous soil. The results highlight EDR potential to remediate metal polluted soils at neutral to alkaline pH by choosing a good enhancement solution.
The study was devoted to the evaluation of technogenic geochemical pollution of the residential area of an industrial town and its effects on lung cancer incidence in the population living under severe exposure to emissions of a copper smelter plant. For mathematical treatment of epidemiologic data there were used methods of a system multifactor analysis based on pattern recognition principles. The result of the long-term operation of the copper smelter plant was established to become the intensive technogenic pollution of environment with carcinogenic substances. The contribution of environmental contamination in the lung cancer incidence of the population exposed to industrial emissions of the copper smelter was shown to be about 10%.