This report is a summary of a study 1 conducted at the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences to evaluate collaboration during crisis management. The study includes relevant legal and regulatory dynamics, as well as conclusions and recommendations. Rules and regulations of international interest are presented in the Appendix. References are limited to those of international interest.
This article discusses alliances within local socio-sanitary space, one in which community sector and health sector actors, public health researchers and funding bodies meet. The discussion is based on the study of a research space made up of representatives of actors found at the local level. Both the minutes of the discussions of 12 meetings of the research team, and the collaborative outputs produced throughout the research initiative provide the empirical data for a qualitative analysis. The findings reveal a research space concomitantly constituted by aspects of "non-cooperative games" and of networks based on innovation-fostering knowledge exchanges, which can be viewed, from the perspective of a reflexive epistemology, as a tool for implementing innovative alliances in local, health-promoting socio-sanitary space.
Industrial symbiotic networks are based on the principles of ecological systems where waste equals food, to develop synergistic networks. For example, industrial symbiosis (IS) at Kalundborg, Denmark, creates an exchange network of waste, water, and energy among companies based on contractual dependency. Since most of the industrial symbiotic networks are based on ad-hoc opportunities rather than strategic planning, gaining insight into disruptive scenarios is pivotal for understanding the balance of resilience and sustainability and developing heuristics for designing resilient IS networks. The present work focuses on understanding resilience as an emergent property of an IS network via a network-based approach with application to the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis (KIS). Results from network metrics and simulated disruptive scenarios reveal Asnaes power plant as the most critical node in the system. We also observe a decrease in the vulnerability of nodes and reduction in single points of failure in the system, suggesting an increase in the overall resilience of the KIS system from 1960 to 2010. Based on our findings, we recommend design strategies, such as increasing diversity, redundancy, and multi-functionality to ensure flexibility and plasticity, to develop resilient and sustainable industrial symbiotic networks.
In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9-12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average.
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North-South health development cooperation often includes research financed largely by external donors. The cooperation varies between projects and programmes with regard to subject area, mix of disciplines involved, research methods, training components and project management arrangements. A variety of problems is encountered, but they are rarely described and discussed in published project reports. We authors conducted a study of a small number of European health researchers collaborating with researchers from the Third World. We focused upon projects involving both biomedical and social science researchers, and apart from a literature review three methods were applied: self-administered questionnaires to European researchers, semistructured interviews with five IHCAR researchers, and written summaries by the three authors, each on one recent or ongoing collaborative project of their choice. Most collaborative projects were initiated from the North and are monodisciplinary or partly interdisciplinary in the sense that researchers did independent data collection preceded by joint planning and followed by joint analysis and write-up. There may be disagreements concerning remuneration such as allowances in relation to fieldwork and training. Socio-cultural misunderstanding and conflict was reportedly rare, and no serious problems were reported regarding authorship and publishing. It is concluded that collaborative research is a complex and poorly understood process with considerable potential and worth pursuing despite the problems. Difficulties related to logistics and finance are easily and freely discussed, while there is little evidence that transdisciplinary research is conducted or even discussed. We recommend that published and unpublished reports on collaborative research projects include more detailed accounts of the North-South collaborative arrangements and their management, ethical and financial aspects.
The aim was to build up evidence on intersectoral action for health at local government level by identifying both challenges and facilitating factors in collaboration between sectors when developing and implementing an intersectoral health policy in Varde, Denmark.
The study was carried out in 2011 using the case-study method. Approximately 500 pages of documents from the period 2007-2011 were analysed, and semi-structured interviews were carried out with nine key informants.
The following challenges were identified: the policy was perceived as an additional task by employees outside the health sector; initially no direct funding was allocated to intersectoral projects; the level of ambition was not balanced between sectors; there was a lack of ownership of the policy; baseline measures were lacking and the policy had no clear objectives. Facilitating factors were considered to be: significant political support; public involvement; use of local media; establishment of a 'Fund for Health'; establishment of 'Health Networks' within sectors; and collaboration with a research group.
Important practical lessons can be drawn from this experience for other cities planning to introduce similar formal intersectoral health policies in order to increase the chance of successful intersectoral action in further development and implementation of the intersectoral health policy in varde in the future, the challenges and facilitating factors identified in this study should be considered more evidence is required on the long-term health impacts of such policies.