Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to levels of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. Asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in reduced acrylamide content in the products. In wheat bread, 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14 g kg(-1)) remained after yeast fermentation and baking; for rye bread, 82% of asparagine remained after sourdough fermentation and baking. Asparagine present in untoasted wheat bread had totally reacted after hard toasting. Toasted wheat and rye bread slices contained 11-161 and 27-205 microg kg(-1) acrylamide, respectively, compared to untoasted wheat and rye bread with
A secondary analysis of data from a study of nutritional vulnerability among 153 women in families seeking charitable food assistance was undertaken to estimate the extent and nutritional significance of at-home food preparation activity for these women. At-home food preparation was estimated from women's reported food intakes from three 24-hour recalls. The relationships between food preparation and energy and nutrient intake, food intake, and 30-day household food security status were characterized. Almost all participants (97%) consumed foods prepared from scratch at least once during the three days of observation; 57% did so each day. Both the frequency and complexity of at-home food preparation were positively related to women's energy and nutrient intakes and their consumption of fruits and vegetables, grain products, and meat and alternates. The intakes by women in households with food insecurity with hunger reflected less complex food preparation but no less preparation from scratch than women in households where hunger was not evident, raising questions about the extent to which food skills can protect very poor families from food insecurity and hunger. Our findings indicate the need for nutrition professionals to become effective advocates for policy reforms to lessen economic constraints on poor households.
Aboriginal people access diabetes and nutrition education less than non-Aboriginal people. Culturally appropriate, effective and accessible diabetes and nutrition education for Aboriginal people is urgently needed.
A qualitative approach was used to explore the experiences of Aboriginal people who had attended cooking courses run at the Aboriginal Medical Service Western Sydney between 2002 and 2007. Data from 23 semi-structured interviews were analysed thematically.
Despite reported improvements in nutrition knowledge and cooking skills, the ability of participants to implement desired dietary changes varied. A new health diagnosis, such as diabetes, pre-diabetes, heart disease or cancer and the desire of participants to influence their families to lead healthier, diabetes-free lives were strong motivators for dietary change. In contrast, lack of family support for dietary change and a sense of social isolation caused by dietary change strongly impeded some participants' attempts to improve their diets. Other significant barriers were poor oral health and depression, the higher cost of healthier food and generational food preferences.
Aboriginal cooking course participants faced multiple barriers to dietary change - social, financial, medical and historical. The family was the most crucial determinant of participant ability to achieve sustained dietary change.
Heavy coffee consumption has been associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk although many studies have not observed any relation. We studied the effect of coffee consumption, assessed with a 4-d food record, on the incidence of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction or coronary death in a cohort of 1971 men who were 42 to 60 y old and free of symptomatic CHD at baseline in 1984-1989. During a mean follow-up of 14 y, 269 participants experienced an acute coronary event. After adjustment for age, smoking, exercise ischemia, diabetes, income, and serum insulin concentration, the rate ratios (95% CIs) in daily nondrinkers and light (375 mL or less), moderate (reference level), and heavy (814 mL or more) drinkers were 0.84 (0.41-1.72), 1.22 (0.90-1.64), 1.00, and 1.43 (1.06-1.94). To address time dependence of the effect, the analysis was repeated for 75 CHD events that occurred during the first 5 y; the respective rate ratios were 0.42 (0.06-3.10), 2.00 (1.16-3.44), 1.00, and 2.07 (1.17-3.65). Further adjustment for serum HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration, diastolic blood pressure, maximal oxygen uptake, and waist-hip ratio slightly increased the rate ratio for heavy coffee intake. Neither the brewing method (boiling vs. filtering) nor the serum LDL cholesterol concentration had any impact on the risk estimates for coffee intake. In conclusion, heavy coffee consumption increases the short-term risk of acute myocardial infarction or coronary death, independent of the brewing method or currently recognized risk factors for CHD.
The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the principle and practice of self-catering system in a Danish prison. Self-catering is a reflection of the Danish correctional principle of normalisation between prison and community life. Unlike some other jurisdiction, issues of control in meal preparation are subordinate to prisoners' right to choose and prepare their own food.
Findings are derived from 13 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish maximum security prison for men, including in-depth interviews with 68 prisoners.
Overall findings showed that thinking about meals and their preparation is time consuming for prisoners who tend to be positive about the system making connections with their ability to exercise responsibility for making healthily choices. The research concludes that prisoners' possibility for developing cooking competences during incarceration could support prisoners change in social identity from crook to cook.
Food is a fundamental need and the ability to choose what to eat and to prepare one's own food should be a right for all people, including prisoners. This research shows that Danish prisoners are very pleased about the system of self-catering. Most prisoners are concerned about preparing their own meals according to their taste and cultural diversity. If the prison offers the opportunity to train as a chef during imprisonment it could support the prisoner's change in social identity from crook to cook on the outside.
The relationships among dietary behaviours, traditional health beliefs (THB), and demographic characteristics of Chinese Canadians living in Toronto were examined, as were their primary sources of nutrition information.
Through the use of probability sampling, 106 adult subjects who originated from China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from five Chinese community organizations. A telephone interview, employing a tested questionnaire, was conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin. All data were analyzed with MS Excel and SPSS statistical software.
Dietary acculturation is gradual and individual. Participants reported regular intakes of fruits and vegetables and fat-reducing behaviours. Most used both Chinese and Western cooking methods. Practices based on traditional Chinese health beliefs (THB), such as balancing yin and yang foods to promote health, were prevalent. Participants were grouped as THB-strong, THB-moderate, or THB-weak, on the basis of their health belief scores. Various significant relationships among the variables were identified. Chinese media, friends, and family were the primary sources of nutrition information; dietitians were identified by only 12%.
This is the first study to apply a THB grouping for Chinese Canadians. Results will provide an important basis for nutrition interventions to encourage immigrants to make healthy food choices, using both traditional and Western foods.
Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers how these contribute to health problems such as obesity and nutritional deficiencies in addition to health inequalities within populations. The participatory study uses data from five focus groups with a total of 22 participants to contribute to our understanding of how social and physical food environments (the "foodscape") shape daily food and cooking practices. Aspects of these environments that were discussed include household roles and responsibilities that require complex management, personal food choice and skill, as well as health, learning, and access to food.
To estimate the consumer risk of contracting Salmonella infection via shell eggs and to evaluate the effect of possible preventative measures, quantitative microbiological risk assessment is being developed in Finland. As a part of the risk assessment, a survey of 918 respondents was conducted to study how households purchase, store, handle, and use eggs. In addition, suitability of the Internet as a survey method was compared with a postal survey. Shell eggs were usually purchased once every 2 weeks (41% of all the respondents). Ninety-one percent of the respondents bought eggs in groceries and 93% stored eggs at chilled temperatures. The majority of the respondents (80%) only had eggs in their home for which the best-before date had not expired. Only 34% of the respondents said that they always washed their hands after breaking eggs. Consumption of well-cooked eggs accounted for 84%, consumption of soft-boiled eggs for 12%, and consumption of raw eggs for 4% of the total amount of eggs consumed. The elderly used eggs more frequently than the whole population, but the consumption of raw egg dishes decreased with age. The Internet survey was a rapid method for transmitting information, but its response rate was low (9%), and it did not appear to be a suitable tool for data collection in a general population. The results indicate that although the majority of the respondents had safe egg-handling practices, a substantial minority of the consumers had risk-prone behavior.
Food banks mitigate immediate food insecurity, but their ability to promote healthy nutrition is constrained by how often recipients may visit and the range of foods available. In a descriptive study, a formative evaluation was completed of a combined heart-healthy recipe-tasting and education program that aims to promote healthy eating knowledge and skills in a group of food bank recipients in Hamilton, Ontario. Fifty-five adults were surveyed about food bank attendance, program awareness, perceived enhancement of knowledge and skills, and suggestions for program improvement. Most participants (73%) were positive about the program, and 91% wanted the program to continue. In addition, 78% would prepare the recipes sampled. In contrast, program awareness and planning food bank visits to coincide with the program were generally low. Food banks are potential sites for effective nutrition promotion programs. To reach more recipients, more frequent implementation and seeking the use of a designated room are suggested for the current program. The findings also suggest that the sampling approach to promoting healthy eating to food bank recipients deserves further study. For example, monitoring the selection of featured recipe ingredients would be a useful indicator of behaviour.