This study explores the experiences of kindergarten staff with a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention, the aims of which were to reduce levels of food neophobia and to promote healthy diets in toddlers (aged 2-3 years). A qualitative design was chosen for the study, and the data are based on three focus group interviews. Altogether, 15 kindergarten staff were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The focus group interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Five main themes emerged from the interviews: i) Successful development of sensory knowledge, ii) Food neophobia, iii) Implementing new routines, a challenge for some, iv) Lack of cooking skills, and v) Inspired to continue. A main finding was that all kindergarten staff perceived the sensory education sessions as successful and reported that both toddlers and staff expanded their food vocabulary and increased their attention to sensory impressions of food. However, the staff reported that some toddlers were less willing to taste new lunch dishes than to taste new foods in the sensory education sessions. The staff also noted that the guidelines for feeding practices resulted in unfamiliar situations at the lunch table. The staff agreed that cooking novel foods was time consuming and left less time for other tasks. Finally, all kindergarten staff expressed that they would like to continue with portions of the food intervention. Our main interpretation is that the intervention presented several challenges, especially regarding cooking and feeding practices. If kindergartens are to be a place to promote healthy eating habits in the early years, sufficient time and resources for cooking seem to be needed and food and feeding practices included in the curriculum of kindergartens and higher education for kindergarten teachers.
Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to levels of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. Asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in reduced acrylamide content in the products. In wheat bread, 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14 g kg(-1)) remained after yeast fermentation and baking; for rye bread, 82% of asparagine remained after sourdough fermentation and baking. Asparagine present in untoasted wheat bread had totally reacted after hard toasting. Toasted wheat and rye bread slices contained 11-161 and 27-205 microg kg(-1) acrylamide, respectively, compared to untoasted wheat and rye bread with
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre de recherche Léa-Roback sur les inégalités sociales de santé de Montréal & IRSPUM, Université de Montréal Public Health Research Institute, Québec, Canada. Sherri.Bisset@criucpq.ulaval.ca
To describe how and why nutritionists implement and strategize particular program operations across school contexts.
Instrumental case study with empirical propositions from Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Data derived from interviews with interventionists and observations of their practices.
Seven primary schools from disadvantaged Montreal neighborhoods.
Six nutritionists implementing the nutrition intervention in grades 4 and 5. From 133 nutrition workshops held in 2005/06, 31 workshops were observed with audio-recordings.
Little Cooks--Parental Networks aims to promote healthy eating behaviors through engagement in food preparation and promotion of nutrition knowledge.
The program-context interface where interventionists' practices form interactively within a given social context.
Coding inspired by ANT. Interview analysis involved construction of collective implementation strategies. Observations and audio-recordings were used to qualify and quantify nutritionists' practices against variations in implementation.
Nutritionists privileged intervention strategies according to particularities of the setting. Some such variation was accounted for by school-level social conditions, individual preferences and nutritionists' past experiences.
Implementation practices are strategic and aim to engage educational actors to achieve intervention goals. These results challenge implementation frameworks centered on purely technical considerations that exclude the social and interpretive nature of practice.
On the basis of some epidemiological criteria, the work gives grounds for distinguishing the category of "new settlers" among the whole number of "newcomers". The time necessary for the social adaptation of new settlers is estimated, which makes it possible to take them into account together with permanent residents. The scheme of the division of the population according to the duration of their residence in the endemic area is proposed.
A secondary analysis of data from a study of nutritional vulnerability among 153 women in families seeking charitable food assistance was undertaken to estimate the extent and nutritional significance of at-home food preparation activity for these women. At-home food preparation was estimated from women's reported food intakes from three 24-hour recalls. The relationships between food preparation and energy and nutrient intake, food intake, and 30-day household food security status were characterized. Almost all participants (97%) consumed foods prepared from scratch at least once during the three days of observation; 57% did so each day. Both the frequency and complexity of at-home food preparation were positively related to women's energy and nutrient intakes and their consumption of fruits and vegetables, grain products, and meat and alternates. The intakes by women in households with food insecurity with hunger reflected less complex food preparation but no less preparation from scratch than women in households where hunger was not evident, raising questions about the extent to which food skills can protect very poor families from food insecurity and hunger. Our findings indicate the need for nutrition professionals to become effective advocates for policy reforms to lessen economic constraints on poor households.
Norovirus causes large outbreaks involving all age groups and are considered the most common cause of infectious foodborne diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe a norovirus outbreak connected to insufficient heat treatment during preparation of a shellfish soup in serving portions, during a company Christmas celebration in Norway, December 2013. A questionnaire sent to the employees, showed that 67 % (n = 43) of the celebration participants, reported gastrointestinal symptoms including stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhoea and light fever in the period between 24 and 48 h post celebration. Several dishes were served, including shellfish soup made with carpet shell clams (Tapes rhomboides) in porcelain cups. Consuming this soup, was the only significant risk factor for infection. Norovirus GI and GII were detected in the remaining raw shellfish. To mimic the time and temperature obtained during bivalve soup preparation, raw chopped shellfish tissue and raw cepa onion were added in porcelain cups tempered to 20 °C. To each of these cups, boiling soup base was added. The temperature in the shellfish tissue was continuously recorded, and showed a maximum of 49 °C in the period between 3 and 7 min after adding the boiling soup base. After 1 h the temperature was 30 °C. This time and temperature combination was obviously not sufficient for inactivation of norovirus present in the shellfish tissue. In conclusion, the heat-absorbing capacity of cold ingredients, utensils and table wear porcelain should not be underestimated during food production. Consumers who want to avoid eating raw shellfish, should not assume that the shellfish tissue in preparation as described in our study is adequately heat treated.
To describe the attitudes and habits of Canadians in relation to planning and preparing meals at home, in order to identify motivations that can be used to promote home cooking.
An electronic survey consisting of 39 multiple-choice questions was posted on the Dietitians of Canada website between November 16 and December 22, 2006. The statements analyzed have to do with perceived benefits associated with home cooking, obstacles preventing people from cooking, preparation time and meal planning, learning to cook, and sources of recipe ideas.
A total of 4,080 people filled out the questionnaire. Although they believe that home cooking can improve diet quality and eating behaviours, respondents experience several obstacles relating to day-to-day food preparation. Among these are lack of time, energy, ideas, and planning.
This study underlines the relevance of creating strategies not only for educating consumers about the benefits of home cooking, but also for providing practical information to help them overcome obstacles limiting the day-to-day preparation of food.