To investigate associations between combined hormonal contraception and progestogen-only contraception and risks of venous thromboembolism by progestogen and carriership of genetic hemostatic variations.
This was a case-control study in Sweden carried out between 2003 and 2009, which included 948 patients with venous thromboembolism and 902 individuals in a control group, all aged 18-54 years. Information was obtained by telephone interviews and DNA analyses of blood samples. Radiologic referrals were used for case ascertainment. For comparisons, odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for smoking, body mass index (BMI), and immobilization.
The odds ratio (OR) for current use of combined hormonal contraception was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0-7.0). Desogestrel combinations had the highest OR (11.4, 95% CI 6.0-22.0). The OR for injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate was 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-4.0). In users of combined hormonal contraception with the factor V Leiden mutation, the OR was 20.6 (95% CI 8.9-58). In women who used progestogen-only contraception and carried the factor V Leiden mutation, the OR was 5.4 (95% CI 2.5-13).
Risks of venous thromboembolism in association with combined hormonal contraception vary by type of progestogen and independently of BMI and smoking. Thrombophilic genotypes such as factor V Leiden increase risks of venous thromboembolism in users of combined hormonal contraception. Except for injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate, progestin-only contraception seems to be the least thrombogenic hormonal contraception for women carrying genetic hemostatic variations.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors.
We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0%) participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC) (29.9%) than in men (6.1%) and women not using OC (7.9%). Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio?=?8.98, p
Cites: Ann Med. 2000 May;32(4):274-810852144
Cites: Life Sci. 2003 Jul 25;73(10):1245-5212850240
There is a lack of knowledge about how oral contraceptives may affect sexual function.
To determine whether there is a causal effect of oral contraceptives on sexuality. We hypothesized that a widely used pill impairs sexuality.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Enrollment began in February 2012 and was completed in August 2015.
Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
A total of 340 healthy women, aged 18-35 years, were randomized to treatment, and 332 completed the study.
A combined oral contraceptive (150 µg levonorgestrel and 30 µg ethinylestradiol) or placebo for 3 months of treatment.
The primary outcome was the aggregate score on the Profile of Female Sexual Function (PFSF). Secondary outcomes were the seven domains of the PFSF, the Sexual Activity Log, and the Personal Distress Scale.
Overall sexual function was similar in women in the oral contraceptive and placebo groups. The PFSF domains desire (-4.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.49 to -0.38; P = .032), arousal (-5.1; 95% CI, -9.63 to -0.48; P = .030), and pleasure (-5.1; 95% CI, -9.97 to -0.32; P = .036) were significantly reduced in comparison to placebo, whereas orgasm, concern, responsiveness, and self-image were similar between groups. The mean frequency of satisfying sexual episodes and personal distress were also similar between groups.
This study shows no negative impact of a levonorgestrel-containing oral contraceptive on overall sexual function, although three of seven sexual function domains were adversely affected.
The paper is devoted to the topical problem of maintaining somatic and psychic health of the women of reproductive age by rational pregnancy planning and prevention of abortions by modern methods of contraception including combined oral hormonal contraception. Unfortunately, this approach is rarely employed in this country (5-6%). Results of retrospective analysis of medical documentation, clinical efficacy and safety of modern combined oral hormonal contraception are presented.
To review current knowledge about emergency contraception (EC), including available options, their modes of action, efficacy, safety, and the effective provision of EC within a practice setting.
The combined estradiol-levonorgestrel (Yuzpe regimen) and the levonorgestrel-only regimen, as well as post-coital copper intrauterine devices, are reviewed.
Efficacy in terms of reduction in risk of pregnancy, safety, and side effects of methods for EC and the effect of the means of access to EC on its appropriate use and the use of consistent contraception.
MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database were searched for English-language articles published from January 1998 through March 2003, to update the previous SOGC guidelines published in 2000. Clinical guidelines and position papers developed by health or family planning organizations were also reviewed. Key words used were: emergency contraception, post-coital contraception, emergency contraceptive pills, postcoital copper IUD.
The studies reviewed were classified according to criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam and the recommendations for practice were ranked based on this classification.
These guidelines are intended to help reduce unintended pregnancies by increasing awareness and appropriate use of EC.
1. Women who have had unprotected intercourse and wish to prevent pregnancy should be offered hormonal EC up to 5 days after intercourse. (II-2A) 2. A copper IUD can be used up to 7 days after intercourse in women who have no contraindications. (III-B) 3. Women should be advised that the levonorgestrel EC regimen is more effective and causes fewer side effects than the Yuzpe regimen. (I-A) 4. Either 1 double dose of the levonorgestrel EC regimen (1.5 mg) or the regular 2-dose levonorgestrel regimen (0.75 mg each dose) may be used, as they have similar efficacy with no difference in side effects. (I-A) 5. Hormonal EC should be started as soon as possible after unprotected sexual intercourse. (II-2B)6. Women of reproductive age should be provided with a prescription for hormonal EC in advance of need. (I-A) 7. The woman should be evaluated for pregnancy if menses have not begun within 21 days following EC treatment. (III-A) 8. A pelvic examination is not indicated for the provision of hormonal EC. (III-A) Validation: These guidelines have been reviewed by the Clinical Practice Gynaecology and Social and Sexual Issues Committees of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.
BACKGROUND: Fatal venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare complication of combined oral contraceptive (COC) treatment. This study aims to determine incidences of fatal VTE in relation to the type of COC and the percentage of cases reported to the Swedish Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee (SADRAC). A further aim is to compare the characteristics of reported and not reported cases. METHODS: This retrospective study is a separate analysis using data from a larger study that included women aged 15-44 years between 1990 and 1999 with VTE coded as the underlying or contributory cause of death in the Swedish Cause of Death Register. COC use within 2 months of the date of symptom onset or death was identified in 28 cases. Sales data were obtained from the National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies. Reported cases were identified in the SADRAC database. RESULTS: After excluding two cases where the type of COC was unknown, the crude incidences of fatal VTE were 5.1 (95% CI 2.3, 9.6), 8.6 (95% CI 4.3, 15.4) and 9.1 (95% CI 3.3, 19.8) cases per million women per year for levonorgestrel-, desogestrel- and norethisterone-containing COCs, respectively. Age-adjusted incidences were approximately twice as high for desogestrel- and norethisterone-containing COCs compared with levonorgestrel-containing COCs, although differences were not statistically significant. Thirty-six percent of cases were reported. Reporting was positively associated with information in medical records relevant to the VTE diagnosis that the patient was a COC user and was significantly higher in northern Sweden. CONCLUSION: Results from this study support a higher incidence of fatal VTE with desogestrel-containing COCs than with levonorgestrel-containing COCs.
A 10-year follow-up (1970-79) of a defined general population (n = 159 200) of middle-aged (born in 1911-40), urban, native Swedes, revealed that the prevalence rate of subarachnoid hemorrhage was 2.8 times higher in females than in males. This was mainly due to an accumulation of non-hypertensive aneurysmal subarachnoid bleeds in women born in the period 1932-40. The cases were significantly (P less than 0.001) overrepresented among divorced women, with relative risks of 1.89, 0.98 and 0.63 for divorced women, married women and spinsters (never married), respectively. Since high-dose estrogen-progestagen oral contraceptives have largely been used by the younger members of this study cohort, it may be speculated whether the observed substantial excess prevalence rate of subarachnoid hemorrhage with saccular aneurysm, not reported previously, represents a cohort effect unexpected after the introduction of low-dose oral contraceptives.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of venous thrombosis in current users of different types of hormonal contraception, focusing on regimen, oestrogen dose, type of progestogen, and route of administration. DESIGN: National cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1995-2005. PARTICIPANTS: Danish women aged 15-49 with no history of cardiovascular or malignant disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted rate ratios for all first time deep venous thrombosis, portal thrombosis, thrombosis of caval vein, thrombosis of renal vein, unspecified deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism during the study period. RESULTS: 10.4 million woman years were recorded, 3.3 million woman years in receipt of oral contraceptives. In total, 4213 venous thrombotic events were observed, 2045 in current users of oral contraceptives. The overall absolute risk of venous thrombosis per 10 000 woman years in non-users of oral contraceptives was 3.01 and in current users was 6.29. Compared with non-users of combined oral contraceptives the rate ratio of venous thrombembolism in current users decreased with duration of use (4 years 2.76, 2.53 to 3.02; P
Experiments in animal models have shown a positive association between in utero exposure to pharmacologic sex hormones and offspring obesity. The developmental effects of such hormones on human obesity are unknown.
Using data from a large, prospective pregnancy cohort study (n=19?652), with linkage to a national prescription registry, we evaluated the association between use of hormonal contraceptives before and after conception (defined from dispensed prescription data and characterized by last date of use relative to conception, 12 to >4 months before (n=3392), 4 to >1 months before (n=2541), 1 to >0 months before (n=2997) and 0-12 weeks after (n=567)) in relation to offspring overweight or obesity at age 3 years.
We observed a weak, inverse association between early pregnancy use of a combination oral contraceptive and offspring overweight or obesity at age 3 (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53, 1.08) and a positive, but imprecise, association with use of a progestin-only oral contraceptive in early pregnancy (adjusted OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.79, 2.02). In general, no association was observed between the use of a hormonal contraceptive before conception and offspring overweight or obesity. A sensitivity analysis comparing combination oral contraceptive users in early pregnancy to other unplanned pregnancies without hormonal contraceptive use further strengthened the inverse association (adjusted OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.02). Other sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the associations observed given varying assumptions.
Pharmacologic sex hormones in early pregnancy may be inversely or positively associated with offspring overweight or obesity at age 3, depending on the specific formulation used. The present study provides support for the potential for environmental sources of hormonally active agents to exert developmental effects.