A questionnaire investigation to which 144 homosexual persons replied anonomously revealed alterations in the sexual habits after information about AIDS. Significant reduction in the annual number of partners and significantly fewer employ the more dangerous sexual practices which now occur particularly in more permanent partnerships are among the alterations started. An unchanged number still employ active anal and orogenital coitus. Employment of condoms has increased significantly, particularly in anal coitus and "casual" partners (from 3% to 82%). The majority accept the use of condoms and state that they employ more "safe sex" than prior to information about AIDS. 12% stated that they had sex with both sexes and the possibility of spread of infection from homosexual to heterosexual groups is present. The intensive informative work from the homosexuals own organisation and from public health authorities appear to have had some effect but further information and influencing are necessary if the spread of HIV infection is to be stopped.
This paper describes use of contraception at first intercourse among Norwegian adolescents and sheds some light upon whether the HIV-epidemic has influenced the use of contraception. The data stem from a population-based survey of 3,000 17-, 18- and 19-year-olds. The response rate was 60.9%. A total of 1,172 persons had experienced intercourse and constitute the material. A total of 42.2% reported having used a condom, 8.5% the p-pill, 17.6% practiced withdrawal, and 31.0% did not use any contraception at their first experience of intercourse. Use/non-use of contraception was associated with educational aspirations, age at first intercourse and consumption of alcohol. Condom use was associated with age, educational aspirations, parental education, consumption of alcohol and discussing contraception with parents and peers. The higher proportion of condom use at first intercourse among the 17-year-olds (47.5%) as compared with the 19-year-olds (34.3%) can probably be ascribed to the HIV-epidemic.
To evaluate the effect of previous AIDS education on AIDS knowledge and sex behaviour among Danish adolescents, a survey was carried out in April-May 1988 amongst 15-16 year-old school children of 9th grade elementary school. Through a cluster-sampling procedure, 45 school classes in nine geographical areas around the country were selected representing various degrees of urbanisation. A questionnaire was handed out and collected by the local school physician during a class session. The 728 pupils responding corresponded to a response rate of 89% of the pupils enlisted and 99% of the pupils present. The results demonstrate that AIDS education has been widely introduced in Danish schools and is well accepted. However, school health services have only rarely been involved. The educational activities seem to have a positive effect on knowledge about HIV-transmission and AIDS, attitudes towards the use of condoms and actual sexual behaviour, although risk-behaviour is still prevalent. The respondents express positive attitudes towards more AIDS education--especially among those with very little or no previous educational experiences.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a significant health problem among teenagers. Chlamydia has been found in 10-20% of young people seeking advice, and HIV is a hugh potential threat. In the late 1980s campaigns started against STDs and AIDS have increased the use of condoms. In 1976, a youth counseling was set up in Linkoping, Sweden. During 1987-90 attenders were queried to find out if teenagers used the condom more extensively as a result of increased information in schools and in the mass media. 1184 visits of girls who admitted sexual intercourse were registered. 91% of them were aged 16-19. An average of 37.5% of the girls states that their partner had used the condom during the last intercourse. No change was observed in the rate of condom use. During the period 1987-90, pertinent information increased in schools and in the media. Nonetheless the results do not indicate that it affected the sexual behavior of young people, although it could have longterm effects. General information may have to he completed on the basis of a school program with social and psychological content.
The article discusses the relationship between attitudes towards condoms and the use of condoms among sexually active Norwegian adolescents. The data stem from a random survey of 3,000 Norwegian adolescents aged 17-19. The responsrate was 61.8%. In general, most adolescents were positive towards condoms, and condom users were more positive than non-users. A logistic regression analysis showed that the only statistically significant predictors of condom use were the attitudes 'condoms aren't necessary to me' and 'condoms are uncomfortable'. The results indicate that attitudes towards condoms bear some relation to condom use. But, the use of condoms is also governed by factors other than attitudes.
Awareness of a condom campaign directed at Norwegian adolescents was studied in terms of individual characteristics and social processes. The material comprised a representative sample of 3000 Norwegians aged 17 through 19 years. The response rate was 60.9%. Data were collected by self-administered, anonymous, questionnaires. The campaign consisted of five different elements. The awareness of the elements varied between 50% and 9%. Forty-eight percent reported awareness of at least one element. Six background variables included in a multiple regression model explained only 6% of the variance in awareness of the campaign. In order to illustrate social processes leading to awareness of the campaign, a path model was constructed. Coitus experience, educational aspirations and sex seemed to influence awareness of the campaign through three different paths, in which IPC was included in each path as a intervening variable. Thus, through indirect processes, IPC was mediating the main effects of the three independent variables on awareness. IPC served as a mediating variable between personal characteristics and awareness of the campaign. The results from this study indicate that increasing the adolescents' ability to communicate about sexual topics, are important educational tasks for future prevention of HIV/AIDS.
Contraceptive habits in relation to sexual activity were investigated in a population-based cross-sectional investigation. A total of 661 women from Nykøbing Falster and 586 women from Nuuk/Godthåb in Greenland participated. The women, who were in the age group 20-39 years, were selected at random from the census and all underwent a personal interview. Both in Godthåb and in Nykøbing Falster a "non-barrier" method of contraception was the commonest method employed, regardless of the number of sexual partners. In Godthåb, the majority had thus employed IUDs and in Nykøbing Falster, oral contraception was the method most employed. In Godthåb, 9-22% had employed condoms on one or other occasion and the prevalence of this was found to increase with the number of sexual contacts. In Nykøbing Falster 57-63% had employed condoms but no significant variation was observed between various categories of numbers of partners in this area. From the point of view of prevention of sexually transmitted disease, it is striking that among women with greater than or equal to 20 sexual partners, approximately 79% and approximately 40% in Godthåb and Nykøbing Falster, respectively, had never employed condoms or diaphragms. In future, it will be important to investigate the patterns of sexual behaviour in various cultures and their development during the course of time in order to advise a population on the basis of the norms found in the culture concerned.