To evaluate the impact on lipid and carbohydrate variables of a combined one-third ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) dose reduction in oral contraceptives.
In an open-label, randomized study, a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg EE and 100 microg LNG (20 EE/100 LNG) was compared with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 microg LNG (30 EE/150 LNG). One-year data from 48 volunteers were obtained.
We found a decrease of HDL2 cholesterol and increases of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides in both treatment groups from baseline to the 13th treatment cycle. Although for four of six variables, the changes in the 20 EE group were lower compared with the 30 EE group, none of the differences between the two treatments were statistically significant. The median values for the fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids slightly increased or remained unchanged while the fasting glucose levels slightly decreased after 13 treatment cycles. While the glucose area under the curve (AUC) (0-3 h) was similar in both groups during the OGTT, the insulin AUC(0-3 h) was less increased in the 20 EE/100 LNG group compared with the 30 EE/150 LNG group. None of the differences between the treatment groups for any of the carbohydrate metabolism variables were statistically significant at any time point. Both study treatments were safe and well tolerated by the volunteers.
Similar effects on the lipid and carbohydrate profiles were found for both preparations. The balanced one-third EE dose reduction in this new oral contraceptive caused slightly lower, but insignificant, changes in the lipid and carbohydrate variables compared with the reference treatment.
To investigate the contraception and sexual health-related awareness, attitudes, and practices of a representative sample of Canadian women of childbearing age.
A self-report survey was mailed to a national sample of 3345 women, aged 15 to 44 years, who were members of a pre-recruited market research panel. Survey questions and methodology were similar to 3 previous Canadian Contraception Studies, allowing for description of current patterns of behaviours and beliefs and comparison of trends over time.
Of 3345 women contacted, 1582 returned completed surveys, for a response rate of 47.3%. Responses were weighted to represent Canadian women by region, age, and marital status on the basis of current census data. Eighty-six percent of women sampled had ever had sexual intercourse and 78% were currently sexually active. Women's familiarity with oral contraceptives and condoms as methods of contraception was high (96% and 93%, respectively), but familiarity with other methods was much lower (sterilization, 62%; withdrawal, 59%; the morning-after pill, 57%; intrauterine devices, 50%; depot [injectable] medroxyprogesterone acetate, 38%). A very favourable opinion was held by 63% of respondents concerning oral contraceptives, by 38% concerning condoms, and by 39% and 28% concerning male and female sterilization, respectively. Among respondents who have ever had sexual intercourse, the most frequently used current methods were oral contraceptives (32%), condoms (21%), male sterilization (15%), female sterilization (8%), and withdrawal (6%). Nine percent of these respondents reported using no method of contraception at all. The currently reported rate of female sterilization is the lowest ever recorded in Canada. Survey results show that adherence to contraceptive methods is a challenge for many women and their partners, and that risk of sexually transmitted disease is an ongoing concern.
This study provides a wide-ranging examination of contraception awareness, beliefs, and use among Canadian women that may provide guidance for clinical and public health practice. Part 1 of this report describes the methodology of the 2002 Canadian Contraception Study and the overall results of this study; Part 2 considers results pertaining specifically to adolescent women and women in their later reproductive years, reports on indicators of women's sexual function and reproductive health history, describes approaches to addressing challenges in contraception counselling, and presents data concerning trends in Canadian women's awareness and use of contraception over the past 2 decades.
The 2002 Canadian Contraception Study investigated the contraception and sexual health-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of a representative sample of Canadian women of childbearing age. In Part 2 of the report of this research, the authors focus on the contraceptive attitudes and practices of adolescent women and women in their later reproductive years, provide data on sexual and reproductive health indicators of Canadian women, describe 2-decade trends in the awareness, opinion, and utilization of contraceptive methods among Canadian women, and describe contraception counselling strategies that may be used to improve patient choice and adherence to method. This report closes with an overall discussion of the findings of the 2002 Canadian Contraception Study.
OBJECTIVE: The human uterine cervix is capable of producing nitric oxide (NO). We studied the impact of cytological changes on the release of cervical NO. DESIGN: Population-based case-control study. SETTING: City of Helsinki, Finland. POPULATION: Cervical cytology tests and cervical fluid samples were collected in 297 women. METHODS: Cervical cytology tests, classified according to Bethesda criteria, were specifically analyzed for changes typically seen in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the level of NO metabolites (NOx) in cervical fluid was assessed by Griess reaction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The difference in cervical fluid NOx between normal and abnormal cytology. RESULTS: Cervical cytology was normal in 219 women and abnormal in 78 women. Among women with abnormal cytology there was both a higher detection rate (89% vs. 71%) and a higher concentration of NOx (median 22.5 micromol/l, 95% CI 14.6-31.9 vs. 11.0 micromol/l, 95% CI 8.0-16.7) compared to women with normal cytology. Age, parity, use of oral contraceptives, phase of the menstrual cycle, or history of miscarriage or termination of early pregnancy were not linked to an increased cervical NOx level. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cell changes (suggestive of HPV infection) are accompanied by an increased release of NO in the human cervix. The significance of this finding remains uncertain, but in theory, increased release of NO could modify the outcome of cervical infection.
Possible risk factors for abnormal Papanicolaou smear were investigated in a population-based cross-sectional study. From Nuuk (Greenland) and Nykøbing Falster (Denmark), random samples of 800 women aged 20-39 years were drawn. Totals of 586 and 661 women were included in Greenland and Denmark, respectively. All women went through a personal interview, and had a gynecologic examination including a PAP smear and cervical swab for HPV analysis. A blood sample was taken for analysis of HSV type specific antibodies. Multiple sexual partners was the most important risk factor for abnormal cervical cytology (OR = 4.2). An infectious etiology was also indirectly supported by a relatively protective effect of barrier contraceptive methods (OR = 0.6). The simultaneous finding of HPV 16/18 as a significant risk factor (OR = 2.4) cannot be taken uncritically as support for a causal effect of this HPV type, since such a relationship between cytological changes of the cervix and HPV infection could also emerge if the positive PAP smear was not just a measure of intra-epithelial neoplasia but also an expression of the infection itself on the cervix.
The frequency of abortion and contraceptive counseling in the first 3 months of 1975 under the new Swedish abortion law is compared with previous trends in abortion and counseling. The number of abortions in the 1st quarter of 1975 indicates a yearly increase of 8% in the number of abortions performed with relation to 1974. The number of teen-age abortions in the 1st quarter of 1975 was approximately 25% of the total. 90% of the cases were performed by vacuum aspiration, and 85% were performed before the 13th week of pregnancy. Based on the figures for these 3 months, 83,500 government subsidized contraceptive counseling visits took place, compared with 500,000 for the entire year 1974. This rather modest figure for 1975 is a result of a new organization of the counseling system, with large increases in some geographic and decreases in others. Private physicians have been reducing services in this field as a result of the standard government compensation for contraceptive counseling. It is felt that the capacity for increased counseling will be realized during 1975.
In 1989, 300 women who were admitted for abortion at Buskerud Central Hospital answered questions about their reasons for deciding to terminate the pregnancy, and about prevention and information. The material was compared with a previous study of journals from 1977. In both cases the age group 15-20 years constituted 25% of the material. In 1989, 53% gave problems at home and economy as reasons for abortion, compared with 66% in 1977. In 1989, 34% emphasized school and education as reasons, compared with 14% in the previous study. 36% indicated that preventive measures had failed. 81% had received satisfactory information about the operation. 50% were in doubt about their decision.