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A 1-year randomized study to evaluate the effects of a dose reduction in oral contraceptives on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism: 20 microg ethinyl estradiol combined with 100 microg levonorgestrel.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176202
Source
Contraception. 2005 Feb;71(2):111-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Sven O Skouby
Jan Endrikat
Bernd Düsterberg
Werner Schmidt
Christoph Gerlinger
Jens Wessel
Henri Goldstein
Joergen Jespersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Frederiksberg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, DK 2000 Copenhagen F, Denmark. sven.skouby@fh.hosp.dk
Source
Contraception. 2005 Feb;71(2):111-7
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood Glucose - metabolism
C-Peptide - blood
Carbohydrate Metabolism - drug effects
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Contraceptive Agents, Female - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Denmark
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Ethinyl Estradiol - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified - blood
Female
Humans
Insulin - blood
Levonorgestrel - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Lipid Metabolism - drug effects
Prospective Studies
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
To evaluate the impact on lipid and carbohydrate variables of a combined one-third ethinyl estradiol (EE)/levonorgestrel (LNG) dose reduction in oral contraceptives.
In an open-label, randomized study, a dose-reduced oral contraceptive containing 20 microg EE and 100 microg LNG (20 EE/100 LNG) was compared with a reference preparation containing 30 microg EE and 150 microg LNG (30 EE/150 LNG). One-year data from 48 volunteers were obtained.
We found a decrease of HDL2 cholesterol and increases of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides in both treatment groups from baseline to the 13th treatment cycle. Although for four of six variables, the changes in the 20 EE group were lower compared with the 30 EE group, none of the differences between the two treatments were statistically significant. The median values for the fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide and free fatty acids slightly increased or remained unchanged while the fasting glucose levels slightly decreased after 13 treatment cycles. While the glucose area under the curve (AUC) (0-3 h) was similar in both groups during the OGTT, the insulin AUC(0-3 h) was less increased in the 20 EE/100 LNG group compared with the 30 EE/150 LNG group. None of the differences between the treatment groups for any of the carbohydrate metabolism variables were statistically significant at any time point. Both study treatments were safe and well tolerated by the volunteers.
Similar effects on the lipid and carbohydrate profiles were found for both preparations. The balanced one-third EE dose reduction in this new oral contraceptive caused slightly lower, but insignificant, changes in the lipid and carbohydrate variables compared with the reference treatment.
PubMed ID
15707560 View in PubMed
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The 2002 Canadian Contraception Study: part 1.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179693
Source
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Jun;26(6):580-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
William Fisher
Richard Boroditsky
Brian Morris
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London ON.
Source
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Jun;26(6):580-90
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Canada
Condoms
Contraception Behavior - statistics & numerical data - trends
Contraceptive Agents, Female - administration & dosage
Contraceptive Agents, Male - administration & dosage
Contraceptives, Oral - administration & dosage
Data Collection
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Marital status
Sterilization, Reproductive - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Abstract
To investigate the contraception and sexual health-related awareness, attitudes, and practices of a representative sample of Canadian women of childbearing age.
A self-report survey was mailed to a national sample of 3345 women, aged 15 to 44 years, who were members of a pre-recruited market research panel. Survey questions and methodology were similar to 3 previous Canadian Contraception Studies, allowing for description of current patterns of behaviours and beliefs and comparison of trends over time.
Of 3345 women contacted, 1582 returned completed surveys, for a response rate of 47.3%. Responses were weighted to represent Canadian women by region, age, and marital status on the basis of current census data. Eighty-six percent of women sampled had ever had sexual intercourse and 78% were currently sexually active. Women's familiarity with oral contraceptives and condoms as methods of contraception was high (96% and 93%, respectively), but familiarity with other methods was much lower (sterilization, 62%; withdrawal, 59%; the morning-after pill, 57%; intrauterine devices, 50%; depot [injectable] medroxyprogesterone acetate, 38%). A very favourable opinion was held by 63% of respondents concerning oral contraceptives, by 38% concerning condoms, and by 39% and 28% concerning male and female sterilization, respectively. Among respondents who have ever had sexual intercourse, the most frequently used current methods were oral contraceptives (32%), condoms (21%), male sterilization (15%), female sterilization (8%), and withdrawal (6%). Nine percent of these respondents reported using no method of contraception at all. The currently reported rate of female sterilization is the lowest ever recorded in Canada. Survey results show that adherence to contraceptive methods is a challenge for many women and their partners, and that risk of sexually transmitted disease is an ongoing concern.
This study provides a wide-ranging examination of contraception awareness, beliefs, and use among Canadian women that may provide guidance for clinical and public health practice. Part 1 of this report describes the methodology of the 2002 Canadian Contraception Study and the overall results of this study; Part 2 considers results pertaining specifically to adolescent women and women in their later reproductive years, reports on indicators of women's sexual function and reproductive health history, describes approaches to addressing challenges in contraception counselling, and presents data concerning trends in Canadian women's awareness and use of contraception over the past 2 decades.
PubMed ID
15193204 View in PubMed
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The 2002 Canadian Contraception Study: Part 2.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179234
Source
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Jul;26(7):646-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
William Fisher
Richard Boroditsky
Brian Morris
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON.
Source
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Jul;26(7):646-56
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Health Services
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Contraception
Contraception Behavior - statistics & numerical data - trends
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Sexual Behavior - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The 2002 Canadian Contraception Study investigated the contraception and sexual health-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of a representative sample of Canadian women of childbearing age. In Part 2 of the report of this research, the authors focus on the contraceptive attitudes and practices of adolescent women and women in their later reproductive years, provide data on sexual and reproductive health indicators of Canadian women, describe 2-decade trends in the awareness, opinion, and utilization of contraceptive methods among Canadian women, and describe contraception counselling strategies that may be used to improve patient choice and adherence to method. This report closes with an overall discussion of the findings of the 2002 Canadian Contraception Study.
PubMed ID
15248934 View in PubMed
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Abnormal cervical cytology is associated with increased nitric oxide release in the uterine cervix.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89757
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(4):417-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Rahkola Paivi
Mikkola Tomi S
Nieminen Pekka
Ylikorkala Olavi
Vaisanen-Tommiska Mervi
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(4):417-21
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Fluids - metabolism
Cervix Uteri - cytology - metabolism
Contraceptives, Oral - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Menstrual Cycle - physiology
Middle Aged
Nitric Oxide - analysis - metabolism
Papillomavirus Infections - metabolism - pathology
Postmenopause
Sweden
Uterine Cervical Dysplasia - metabolism - pathology - virology
Vaginal Smears
Young Adult
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The human uterine cervix is capable of producing nitric oxide (NO). We studied the impact of cytological changes on the release of cervical NO. DESIGN: Population-based case-control study. SETTING: City of Helsinki, Finland. POPULATION: Cervical cytology tests and cervical fluid samples were collected in 297 women. METHODS: Cervical cytology tests, classified according to Bethesda criteria, were specifically analyzed for changes typically seen in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the level of NO metabolites (NOx) in cervical fluid was assessed by Griess reaction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The difference in cervical fluid NOx between normal and abnormal cytology. RESULTS: Cervical cytology was normal in 219 women and abnormal in 78 women. Among women with abnormal cytology there was both a higher detection rate (89% vs. 71%) and a higher concentration of NOx (median 22.5 micromol/l, 95% CI 14.6-31.9 vs. 11.0 micromol/l, 95% CI 8.0-16.7) compared to women with normal cytology. Age, parity, use of oral contraceptives, phase of the menstrual cycle, or history of miscarriage or termination of early pregnancy were not linked to an increased cervical NOx level. CONCLUSIONS: Cervical cell changes (suggestive of HPV infection) are accompanied by an increased release of NO in the human cervix. The significance of this finding remains uncertain, but in theory, increased release of NO could modify the outcome of cervical infection.
PubMed ID
19266358 View in PubMed
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Abnormal Papanicolaou smear. A population-based study of risk factors in Greenlandic and Danish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25362
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1990;69(1):79-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
S K Kjaer
P. Poll
H. Jensen
G. Engholm
B J Haugaard
C. Teisen
R B Christensen
K A Möller
B F Vestergaard
E M de Villiers
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Copenhagen.
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1990;69(1):79-86
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Contraception Behavior
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Greenland
Herpes Genitalis - complications
Humans
Papillomavirus
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sexual Behavior
Smoking
Tumor Virus Infections - complications
Uterine Cervical Dysplasia - diagnosis - etiology
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - etiology
Vaginal Smears
Abstract
Possible risk factors for abnormal Papanicolaou smear were investigated in a population-based cross-sectional study. From Nuuk (Greenland) and Nykøbing Falster (Denmark), random samples of 800 women aged 20-39 years were drawn. Totals of 586 and 661 women were included in Greenland and Denmark, respectively. All women went through a personal interview, and had a gynecologic examination including a PAP smear and cervical swab for HPV analysis. A blood sample was taken for analysis of HSV type specific antibodies. Multiple sexual partners was the most important risk factor for abnormal cervical cytology (OR = 4.2). An infectious etiology was also indirectly supported by a relatively protective effect of barrier contraceptive methods (OR = 0.6). The simultaneous finding of HPV 16/18 as a significant risk factor (OR = 2.4) cannot be taken uncritically as support for a causal effect of this HPV type, since such a relationship between cytological changes of the cervix and HPV infection could also emerge if the positive PAP smear was not just a measure of intra-epithelial neoplasia but also an expression of the infection itself on the cervix.
PubMed ID
2161172 View in PubMed
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[Abortion and contraception information during first period under new legislation]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature66255
Source
Lakartidningen. 1975 Sep 17;72(38):3531-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-17-1975
Author
K. Sundström
Source
Lakartidningen. 1975 Sep 17;72(38):3531-3
Date
Sep-17-1975
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Legal
Abortion, Therapeutic - methods
Adolescent
Adult
Contraception
Female
Humans
Legislation, Medical
Pregnancy
Sweden
Abstract
The frequency of abortion and contraceptive counseling in the first 3 months of 1975 under the new Swedish abortion law is compared with previous trends in abortion and counseling. The number of abortions in the 1st quarter of 1975 indicates a yearly increase of 8% in the number of abortions performed with relation to 1974. The number of teen-age abortions in the 1st quarter of 1975 was approximately 25% of the total. 90% of the cases were performed by vacuum aspiration, and 85% were performed before the 13th week of pregnancy. Based on the figures for these 3 months, 83,500 government subsidized contraceptive counseling visits took place, compared with 500,000 for the entire year 1974. This rather modest figure for 1975 is a result of a new organization of the counseling system, with large increases in some geographic and decreases in others. Private physicians have been reducing services in this field as a result of the standard government compensation for contraceptive counseling. It is felt that the capacity for increased counseling will be realized during 1975.
PubMed ID
1177581 View in PubMed
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[Abortion applicants--reasons, prevention, information]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature65045
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1991 Aug 30;111(20):2557-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-30-1991
Author
O. Jordheim
Author Affiliation
Gynekologisk-obstetrisk avdeling, Buskerud sentralsykehus, Drammen.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1991 Aug 30;111(20):2557-8
Date
Aug-30-1991
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion Applicants - psychology
Abortion, Legal - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Contraception - methods
English Abstract
Female
Humans
Norway
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
In 1989, 300 women who were admitted for abortion at Buskerud Central Hospital answered questions about their reasons for deciding to terminate the pregnancy, and about prevention and information. The material was compared with a previous study of journals from 1977. In both cases the age group 15-20 years constituted 25% of the material. In 1989, 53% gave problems at home and economy as reasons for abortion, compared with 66% in 1977. In 1989, 34% emphasized school and education as reasons, compared with 14% in the previous study. 36% indicated that preventive measures had failed. 81% had received satisfactory information about the operation. 50% were in doubt about their decision.
PubMed ID
1948838 View in PubMed
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Abortion: a review of CMA policy and positions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature253180
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1974 Sep 7;111(5):474-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-7-1974
Author
D A Geekie
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1974 Sep 7;111(5):474-7
Date
Sep-7-1974
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Legal
Abortion, Therapeutic
Canada
Contraception
Ethics, Medical
Family Planning Services
Female
Humans
Jurisprudence
Pregnancy
Societies, Medical
Notes
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1973 Nov 3;109(9):852-64750298
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1973 Dec 15;109(12):1202-54758593
PubMed ID
4411803 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Abortion committee 1965: woman's right to abortion as considerate and early as possible]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature66595
Source
Lakartidningen. 1971 Sep 8;68(37):4137-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-8-1971

1323 records – page 1 of 133.