Although most long-term care facilities cannot always evaluate and treat their residents during acute, intercurrent illnesses, it is possible to design systems that allow for effective care without transfer.
Adult Day Care (ADC) is increasingly being recognized as an important sub-system of the continuing care system. This paper reviews models developed in the United States and Britain and compares them, and the services they offer, with centres in British Columbia, Canada. Data on British Columbia are from a study in which all 49 centres in the province provided detailed information about their staffing, operating characteristics, activities and services. The study found B.C. compared favourably in providing services needed by ADC clients. Key differences between the B.C. centres and those in the U.S. and U.K. were: a larger proportion of B.C. centres were not affiliated with any other organization; B.C. centres admitted a range of clients and were less likely to cater exclusively to special needs groups; and, B.C. centres were more likely than centres in the U.S. to provide a number of services such as: dental care, transportation, bathing and physiotherapy.
U.S. and Canadian data demonstrate decreasing inpatient days, increasing nonurgent emergency department (ED) visits, and short supply of child psychiatrists. Our study aims to determine whether aftercare reduces ED visits and/or readmission in adolescents with first psychiatric hospitalization.
We conducted a population-based cohort analysis using linked health administrative databases with accrual from April 1, 2002, to March 1, 2004. The study cohort included all 15- to 19-year-old adolescents with first psychiatric admission. Adolescents with and without aftercare in the month post-discharge were matched on their propensity to receive aftercare. Our primary outcome was time to first psychiatric ED visit or readmission. Secondary outcomes were time to first psychiatric ED visit and readmission, separately.
We identified 4,472 adolescents with first-time psychiatric admission. Of these, 57% had aftercare in the month post-discharge. Propensity-score-based matching, which accounted for each individual's propensity for aftercare, produced a cohort of 3,004 adolescents. In matched analyses, relative to those with no aftercare in the month post-discharge, those with aftercare had increased likelihood of combined outcome (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.42), and readmission (HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.14-1.66), but not ED visits (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.95-1.37).
Our results are provocative: we found that aftercare in the month post-discharge increased the likelihood of readmission but not ED visit. Over and above confounding by severity and Canadian/U.S. systems differences, our results may indicate a relative lack of psychiatric services for youth. Our results point to the need for improved data capture of pediatric mental health service use.
The Alberta Cardiac Access Collaborative (ACAC) is a joint initiative of Alberta's health system to improve access to adult cardiac services across the patient journey. ACAC has created new care delivery models and implemented best practices across Alberta in four streams across the continuum: heart attack, patient navigation, heart failure and arrhythmia. Emergency medical providers, nurses, primary care physicians, hospitals, cardiac specialists and clinicians are all working together to integrate services, bridge jurisdictions and geography with one aim--improving the patient journey for adults in need of cardiac care.
Alberta's integrated approach to chronic disease management programming embraces client-centred care, supports self-management and facilitates care across the continuum. This paper presents strategies implemented through collaboration with primary care to improve care of individuals with chronic conditions, evaluation evidence supporting success and lessons learned from the Alberta perspective.
To meet the needs of adults with chronic diseases, Canadian health care is moving toward more interdisciplinary, collaborative practice. There is limited high-quality evidence to support practice in this area. Occupational therapists can play a significant role in this area of practice and research.
To develop an agenda of priority areas within collaborative chronic disease research to which occupational therapy can make a contribution.
The project involved literature and Internet review, a consensus meeting with a range of stakeholders, a survey of occupational therapists, and synthesis of findings to create a research agenda.
An interdisciplinary and intersectoral group of stakeholders identified seven main priority areas. One priority is specific to occupational therapy while the remaining six cross disciplines.
The research agenda can support funding applications and encourage interdisciplinary research collaboration to ultimately produce research evidence that can benefit people with chronic diseases.
A national needs assessment of Canadian gastroenterologists and gastroenterology nurses was undertaken to determine the perceived and unperceived educational and performance barriers to caring for patients with Crohn's disease (CD).
A triangulated, mixed-method approach (qualitative and quantitative) was used to determine the nature and extent of knowledge gaps and barriers in the care of patients with CD.
Qualitative interviews were conducted with nine gastroenterologists, four gastroenterology nurses and nine patients with CD. Based on this exploratory research, a survey was designed and launched nationally (37 gastroenterologists, 36 gastroenterology nurses). Findings indicated that Canadian gastroenterologists and gastroenterology nurses lacked clarity regarding their roles and responsibilities across the continuum of CD care, and face communication gaps within the health care team, undermining their effectiveness. Gastroenterologists identified challenges in optimal diagnosis due to unclear testing and diagnostic criteria. They recognized knowledge gaps when treating patient subgroups and in prescribing biological therapies. Furthermore, gastroenterologists self-identified gaps in skill, knowledge, and confidence in monitoring disease progression and effectively assessing response to therapy. When managing patients with CD, gastroenterologists expressed challenges with patient issues outside their domain of medical expertise, particularly with the skills needed to facilitate effective patient communication and education that would enhance adherence to recommended treatments.
Educational initiatives should address diagnostic and treatment guidelines, as well as enhancement of clinical performance gaps in health care team processes and the patient-professional therapeutic relationship. To impact care and patient outcomes, these initiatives must be relevant to clinical practice settings and applicable to the practice context.
Cites: Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Apr;98(4):844-912738466
Cites: Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jan;101(1):110-816405542
Cites: Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 Jul;101(7):1559-6816863561