The Norwegian "Campaign Against Home Accidents" was launched nationwide during 1988 to 1991, with the goal of reducing the incidence of home accidents by 20%. The aim of the campaign was to urge primarily the municipal health services to form local accident prevention groups and to implement local measures for prevention of home accidents. On the basis of two surveys, after one year and at the end of the national campaign, an evaluation was carried out concerning the participation of the municipal health services in the campaign and the impact of the campaign on local accident prevention activities. The results indicate that the national campaign engaged the majority of the municipalities and stimulated local accident prevention work to some extent. Most local activities were health education measures, whereas environmental intervention were less commonly reported. Involvement in the campaign was the variable most related to level of accident prevention activities at the end of the campaign period. However, the relationship was only modest. Restricted economical resources, too little emphasis on environmental change, lack of political involvement and insufficient use of coalition partners at the community level are suggested as the major explanations for the limited effect of the campaign.
In recent years images of independence, active ageing and staying at home have come to characterise a successful old age in western societies. 'Telecare' technologies are heavily promoted to assist ageing-in-place and a nexus of demographic ageing, shrinking healthcare and social care budgets and technological ambition has come to promote the 'telehome' as the solution to the problem of the 'age dependency ratio'. Through the adoption of a range of monitoring and telecare devices, it seems that the normative vision of independence will also be achieved. But with falling incomes and pressure for economies of scale, what kind of independence is experienced in the telehome? In this article we engage with the concepts of 'technogenarians' and 'shared work' to illuminate our analysis of telecare in use. Drawing on European-funded research we argue that home-monitoring based telecare has the potential to coerce older people unless we are able to recognise and respect a range of responses including non-use and 'misuse' in daily practice. We propose that re-imagining the aims of telecare and redesigning systems to allow for creative engagement with technologies and the co-production of care relations would help to avoid the application of coercive forms of care technology in times of austerity.
This paper presents the organisation, progression, and main findings from a community-based substance use prevention project in five municipalities in western Norway. At the central level, this project was organised with a steering committee and a principal project leader, who is situated at the Department of Health and Social Welfare at the county level. Locally, the way of organizing differed, as one would expect from the community-based model. Top-down/bottom-up strategies can apply both in the way a community organises its efforts, as well as in the relationship between the central project organisation and the participating local communities. It is argued that it can be beneficial for the success of community action programs if one attains a "good mix" between top-down and bottom-up strategies. Factors of importance for such "mix" in the Hordaland project were that the municipalities applied for participation, the availability of economic funding, the venues for meetings between central and local project management, the position of local coordinators, the possibilities for coupling project work to otherwise existing community planning, and the extent of formal bureaucracy.
The involvement of consumers in the development of dietary guidelines has been promoted by national and international bodies. Yet, few best practice guidelines have been established to assist with such involvement.
Qualitative semi-structured interviews explored stakeholders' beliefs about consumer involvement in dietary guideline development.
Interviews were conducted in six European countries: the Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Serbia, Spain and the UK.
Seventy-seven stakeholders were interviewed. Stakeholders were grouped as government, scientific advisory body, professional and academic, industry or non-government organisations. Response rate ranged from 45 % to 95 %.
Thematic analysis was conducted with the assistance of NVivo qualitative software. Analysis identified two main themes: (i) type of consumer involvement and (ii) pros and cons of consumer involvement. Direct consumer involvement (e.g. consumer organisations) in the decision-making process was discussed as a facilitator to guideline communication towards the end of the process. Indirect consumer involvement (e.g. consumer research data) was considered at both the beginning and the end of the process. Cons to consumer involvement included the effect of vested interests on objectivity; consumer disinterest; and complications in terms of time, finance and technical understanding. Pros related to increased credibility and trust in the process.
Stakeholders acknowledged benefits to consumer involvement during the development of dietary guidelines, but remained unclear on the advantage of direct contributions to the scientific content of guidelines. In the absence of established best practice, clarity on the type and reasons for consumer involvement would benefit all actors.
A theoretical model of involvement in consumption of food products was tested in a representative survey of Norwegian households for the particular case of consuming seafood as a common family meal. The empirical study is based on using structural equation approach to test construct validity of measures and the empirical fit of the theoretical model. Attitudes, negative feelings, social norms and moral obligation were proved to be important, reliable and different constructs and explained 63% of the variation in seafood involvement. Negative feelings and moral obligation was the most important antecedents of involvement. Both our proposed model and modified model with seafood involvement as a mediator fit well with the data and proved our expectations in a promising way.
This article aims to better understand the definition(s) of 'traditional' food. The authors discuss and exemplify how this rhetorical concept is used in the specialist literature and in Norwegian public debate. The authors ultimately propose a set of central dimensions of traditional food and their relevance across various discourses.
After examining the use of the concept 'tradition' in scientific publications, the authors note that it is based on two main axes: time and know-how. These are interwoven in a 'meaning' dimension in the connection between time and culture, but also in a 'place' dimension that is systematically materialised in food. In order to better describe and understand the dynamic that emerges from the interplay of innovation and tradition, the article goes through the broadest use of 'traditional food' in public discourses, in national and regional newspapers, and in consumers' attitudes. There, the concept of 'traditional food' is used for both preserving historic values and renewing sense of identity.
The article can be regarded as an empirical example which elaborates the understanding of tradition in reflexive modernity. It concludes that the concept of traditional food is neither fixed nor finite but is a fluid and energetic concept which, based on the tensions between four central axes, can adapt to the discourses of preservation, moderation and innovation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how different service delivery systems for assistive devices were associated with the service delivery process (SDP) and user satisfaction in two national contexts when electric powered scooters were provided.
The study had a follow-up design based on a consecutive inclusion of 50 Danish and 86 Norwegian adults as they were about to be provided a scooter. A study-specific structured questionnaire for documentation of the SDP was administered. The Satisfaction with Assistive Technology Services was used for documenting user satisfaction with the SDP. Besides descriptive statistics, regression analysis was used to identify contributors of variance and predictors of user satisfaction.
The various steps of the SDP were carried out to a various degree. Significantly more total time was spent in the SDP in the Danish sample (p
During the 1980s the community became the object of new interest and enthusiasm among many health promotion practitioners and researchers, and the principle of community participation was put on the research agenda. However, recent evaluations of major community health promotion programs have questioned the value of community interventions. This paper argues that the community level need not be of less importance in future health promotion initiatives. It is discussed whether the cultural dimension and the significance of local identities, neglected in most community health promotion programs, should receive more attention when local inhabitants are invited to participate in health promotion or disease prevention activities. Results from a study of injury prevention projects in small Norwegian municipalities indicate that the inhabitants' identification with local spatial subarenas might play an important role when they decide to become involved in injury prevention. Contemporary sociological approaches to the community, focusing on developments of local identities in processes of globalization, have formed a theoretical frame of reference in this study.
Early onset of menopause is a risk factor for several health problems. The objective was primarily to investigate the association between early menopause and current, past active and passive smoking. A second aim was to investigate the association between coffee and alcohol consumption and early menopause.
The present population-based cross-sectional study included a sub-sample of 2123 postmenopausal women born in 1940-41 who participated in the Oslo Health Study. Early menopause was defined as menopause occurring at an age of less than 45 years. We applied logistic regression analyses (crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR)) to examine the association between early menopause and selected lifestyle factors.
Current smoking was significantly associated with early menopause (adj. OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.11-2.28). Stopping smoking more than 10 years before menopause considerably reduced the risk of early menopause (adj. OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05-0.33). Total exposure to smoking (the product of number of cigarettes per day and time as a smoker) was positively related to early menopause and, at the highest doses, nearly doubled the odds (adj. OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.12-3.30). These data suggest a possible dose-response relationship between total exposure to smoking and early menopause, but no dose-response relationship was detected for the other variables examined. We found no significant association of coffee or alcohol consumption with early menopause. Of the lifestyle factors tested, high educational level (adj. OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.72) and high social participation (adj. OR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.39-0.98) were negatively associated with early menopause.
This cross-sectional study shows an association between current smoking and early menopause. The data also suggest that the earlier a woman stops smoking the more protected she is from early menopause. Early menopause was not significantly associated with passive smoking, or alcohol or coffee consumption.
This article is an attempt to evaluate the Oregon plan from the perspective of a Scandinavian national health care system. The Nordic welfare states are marked by a strong emphasis on equality. As an example of an egalitarian system we present the Norwegian health care model in part one. In part two, the arguments in favor of a one tier system in Norway are presented and compared to Oregon's two tier system. Although we argue, in part three, that a comparison of the degree of explicitness in the prioritization process shows that Norway has much to learn from Oregon, we do believe that the Norwegian system has some attractive elements that may function as an important corrective. In part four we present the Norwegian Guidelines for priority-setting and discuss the weight assigned to the severity of disease criterion. It is argued that the exclusion of information about the severity of disease partly explains the counterintuitive ranking of treatment-condition pairs in Oregon's initial method based on the principle of health maximization. A normative analysis of the conflicting norms of efficiency and equality of results is called for. The final part of the paper is devoted to the problem of rigidity. Henry J. Aaron has argued that the Oregon system is insensitive to inter-individual variations within each diagnosis-treatment pair. This objection is a severe one, since the system might end up treating patients unfairly on the individual level. To overcome this problem, we suggest a selection rule that should be more capable of dealing with the problem of rigidity.