This paper examines the challenges that have faced the implementation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programmes in Russia since the 1980s in two regions of Russia, and identifies opportunities for improving such efforts.
This study used a mixed methods design consisting of archival data review of health-related policy documents and legislation, and key informant interviews.
CVD is the leading cause of death in Russia, with rapid increases in prevalence following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The MONICA, Tacis and CINDI programmes have played major roles in the development of non-communicable and CVD prevention policies and programmes in Russia since the 1980s. These programmes have assisted in policy and guideline development, and programme implementation. However, significant barriers in realizing such policies and sustaining prevention programmes have been encountered.
Numerous barriers exist in developing and implementing CVD prevention programmes in Russia. More government engagement backed by strong public support is necessary in order to sustain and build capacity for CVD prevention in Russia.
Participation in physical activity is important for the positive development and well-being of youth. A community- academic partnership was formed to improve access to physical activity for youth in one disadvantaged community in Ottawa, Canada. After consulting this community, a new hip-hop dance intervention was implemented. Adolescents aged 11 to 16 years participated in one of two 3-month sessions. A girls-only and a boys-and-girls format were offered both sessions. This article investigates the implementation of the intervention from the perspective of the youth participants, parents, staff, and researchers. Multiple methods were used, including document review, observation, questionnaire, focus groups, and interviews. Overall, the consistency and quality of program implementation were moderately satisfactory; however, important concerns were noted and this program appeared to be only partially delivered as planned. These findings will be discussed in terms of suggestions for improving the implementation of this intervention and similar recreation programs prioritizing disadvantaged communities.
Twenty-five Scottish and 22 Canadian patients with hemophilia, and 15 Scottish and 14 Canadian carriers of hemophilia participated in the study. They were interviewed with respect to their experience of and attitudes to genetic counseling, perceptions of the counselor's role, and satisfaction with existing care for families with hemophilia. Most patients and carriers favor genetic counseling as part of general counseling offered to them by the hemophilia center and think that such counseling should include dealing with such issues as schooling, employment, emotions, and psychological problems. Prenatal testing and termination of pregnancy is at present unacceptable to most of the participants, although they do not object to the use of these methods in cases of illnesses more severe than hemophilia.
The purpose of this paper is to offer a descriptive framework to analyse the participation of people with disabilities in policy advocacy over the past 20 years.
The study used a qualitative research design to describe and analyse organizations participating in policy advocacy on behalf of people with disabilities in Canada between 1981 and the present. Data for the study were assembled through interviews with key informants who had participated in three policy cases: the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982 (federal); the Canada Clause of the Charlottetown Accord, 1991 (federal); the Ontario Consent to Treatment, Advocacy and Substitute Decision-making bills, 1993-1995 (provincial). For each of the three cases, key informants were identified who could report with authority on the participation of individuals or groups representing people with disabilities. Interviews with key informants were conducted by the investigators, transcribed and coded to produce five dimensions along which advocates described their organizations.
Three ideological dimensions were identified to describe organizations representing people with disabilities: purpose, tactics, and view of disability. Two practical dimensions were also identified: membership and resources. Each of these dimensions is described in detail with quotes from the interviews to illustrate.
These five dimensions result in a descriptive framework for discussion and comparison of organizational characteristics of advocacy organizations representing people with disabilities. Further, the framework affords a vehicle for discussion of the relative success of policy participation on issues affecting the lives of people with disabilities.
To develop a framework for analysing the effectiveness of prospective assessment and to apply the framework to human impact assessments (HuIA) carried out in the Finnish Healthy Cities Network.
The framework was formed by synthesizing and developing the themes that emerged from the published literature on effectiveness. The research material consists of interviews with people who participated in the assessment process in the municipalities (19 interviews). The research material also included assessment documents, proceedings of working meetings, municipal policy documents, background material and project reports produced in the municipalities studied. The research datasets were examined by content analysis.
HuIA increased the decision-makers' awareness of effects and functioned as a tool for empowerment. The latter was apparent, for instance, in the social welfare and healthcare sector, finding a role for itself in decisively co-ordinating interdisciplinary work and actively seeking to alleviate identified negative effects. The assessment process also opened up the planning process, committed various actors to the decision, helped select the right alternative and promoted social learning.
From the viewpoint of preparation and decision-making, the effectiveness of a HuIA increases when assessment becomes a recurring process and an integral part of an organization's activities. Integration of an assessment into permanent structures or activities, such as drawing up programmes or preparing strategies, helps the results of the assessment to be seen more clearly. From the viewpoint of decision-making, it is also important to strengthen the decision-makers' expertise in prospective assessment. When the effectiveness of HuIA is looked at in a new way (i.e. from the viewpoint of goal achievement, decision-making or learning), a more comprehensive interpretation can be given.
BACKGROUND: Non-response in health surveys may lead to bias in estimates of health care utilisation. The magnitude, direction and composition of the bias are usually not well known. When data from health surveys are merged with data from registers at the individual level, analyses can reveal non-response bias. Our aim was to estimate the composition, direction and magnitude of non-response bias in the estimation of health care costs in two types of health interview surveys. METHODS: The surveys were (1) a national personal interview survey of 22 484 Danes (2) a telephone interview survey of 5000 Danes living in Funen County. Data were linked with register information on health care utilisation in hospitals and primary care. Health care utilisation was estimated for respondents and non-respondents, and the difference was explained by a decomposition method of bias components. RESULTS: The surveys produced the same pattern of non-response, but with slight differences in non-response bias. Response rates for the interview and telephone surveys were 75 and 69%, respectively. Refusal was the most frequent reason for non-response (22 and 20% of those sampled, respectively), whereas illness, non-contact, and other reasons were less frequent. Respondents used 3-6% less health care than non-respondents at the aggregate level, but the opposite was true for some specific types of health care. Non-response due to illness was the main contributor to non-response bias. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of non-response have different bias effects. However, the magnitude of the bias encourages the continued use of interview health surveys.
To resolve tensions among competing sources of evidence and public expectations, health-care managers and policy makers are turning more than ever to involve the public in a wide range of decisions. Yet efforts to use research evidence to inform public involvement decisions are hampered by an absence of rigorous public participation evaluation research. In particular, greater rigour in exploring the roles played by different contextual variables--such as characteristics of the issue of interest, the culture of the sponsoring organization and attributes of the decision being made--is needed. Using a comparative quasi-experimental design, we assessed the performance of a generic public participation method implemented in 5 Canadian regionalized health settings between 2001 and 2004. Participant and decision-maker perspectives were assessed and, through direct observation, the roles exerted by contextual variables over the public involvement processes were documented and analysed. Our findings demonstrate that a generic public participation method can be implemented in a variety of contexts and with considerable success. Context exerts fostering and inhibiting influences that contribute to more (or less) successful implementation. Public participation practitioners are encouraged to pay careful attention to the types of issues and decisions for which they are seeking public input. Sufficient organizational resources and commitment to the goals of the public participation process are also required. Attention to these contextual attributes and their influence on the design and outcomes of public participation processes is as important as choosing the "right" public participation mechanism.
Occupational therapists are increasingly recognizing the importance of working with communities as a way to enhance health and well-being. Such work can occur through community development, a community-driven process in which communities are supported in identifying and addressing their health priorities.
This paper presents the qualitative findings of a study that explored the experiences of occupational therapists in Canada working in community development including how they understand community development and how they designed their role in this field.
Occupational therapists working in community development shared their experiences and understanding of community development during 12 interviews.
The results of this study describe the iterative, reflexive process occupational therapists have undergone in coming to establish their role in this field.
Recommendations are made regarding the preparation of future occupational therapists and for supporting those currently working in this field.
To help address physician shortages in the underserved community of Prince George, Canada, the University of British Columbia (UBC) and various partners created the Northern Medical Program (NMP), a regional distributed site of UBC's medical doctor undergraduate program. Early research on the impacts of the NMP revealed a high degree of social connectedness. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of social capital in supporting the regional training site and the benefits accrued to a broad range of stakeholders and network partners.
In this qualitative study, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with community leaders in 2007. A descriptive content analysis based on analytic induction technique was employed. Carpiano's Bourdieu-based framework of 'neighbourhood' social capital was adapted to empirically describe how social capital was produced and mobilized within and among networks during the planning and implementation of the NMP.
Results from this study reveal that the operation of social capital and the related concept of social cohesion are multifaceted, and that benefits extend in many directions, resulting in somewhat unanticipated benefits for other key stakeholders and network partners of this medical education program. Participants described four aspects of social capital: (i) social cohesion; (ii) social capital resources; (iii) access to social capital; and (iv) outcomes of social capital.
The findings of this study suggest that the partnerships and networks formed in the NMP planning and implementation phases were the foundation for social capital mobilization. The use of Carpiano's spatially-bounded model of social capital was useful in this context because it permitted the characterization of relations and networks of a tight-knit community body. The students, faculty and administrators of the NMP have benefitted greatly from access to the social capital mobilized to make the NMP operational. Taking account of the dynamic and multifaceted operation of social capital helps one move beyond a view of geographic communities as simply containers or sinks of capital investment, and to appreciate the degree to which they may act as a platform for productive network formation and expansion.
The authors describe the facilitators and challenges to a multi-sectoral initiative aiming at building organizational capacity for heart health promotion in Nova Scotia, Canada. The research process was guided by participatory action research. The study included 21 organizations from diverse sectors. Participant selection for the data collection was purposive. The authors collected data through organizational reflection logs and one-to-one semistructured interviews and used grounded theory techniques for the data analyses. Factors influencing organizational capacity for heart health promotion varied, depending on the project stage. Nonetheless, leadership, organizational readiness, congruence, research activities, technical supports, and partnerships were essential to capacity-building efforts. Approaches to organizational capacity building should be multi-leveled, because organizations are influenced by multiple social systems that are not all equally supportive of capacity.