The SARS outbreak in Toronto was a public health crisis. It was particularly frightening to the Chinese-Canadians, because of the origin of the deadly disease. The Chinese-Canadian community organizations launched various activities to help the Chinese-Canadians as well as other Asian-Canadian communities to fight against SARS and its social side-effects. From launching the SARS Supporting Line, distributing health promotional material, disseminating SARS related information, paying tribute to frontline health workers, and promoting local business, to fundraising for SARS related research; they played an active role in easing the public's anxiety, especially for the Chinese-Canadians in the great Toronto area. The culturally diverse population brought problems as well as solutions. Ethnic groups have expertise in almost all areas, including people with leadership skills. The Toronto Chinese community's experience in combating SARS is a good example. The Chinese-Canadian community organizations' activities during the SARS outbreak demonstrate that ethnic minority organizations can play an important role in public health, especially in a public health crisis, and beyond.
To present the outcomes of a capacity-building initiative for heart health promotion.
Follow-up study combining quantitative and qualitative methods.
The Western Health Region of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Twenty organizations, including provincial and municipal agencies and community groups engaged in health, education, and recreation activities.
Two strategies were used for this study: partnership development and organizational development. Partnership development included the creation of multilevel partnerships in diverse sectors. Organizational development included the provision of technical support, action research, community activation, and organizational consultation.
Quantitative data included number and type of partnerships, learning opportunities, community activation initiatives, and organizational changes. Qualitative data included information on the effectiveness of partnerships, organizational consultation, and organizational changes.
Results included the development of 204 intersectoral partnerships, creation of a health promotion clearinghouse, 47 workshops attended by approximately 1400 participants, diverse research products, implementation of 18 community heart health promotion initiatives, and increased organizational capacity for heart health promotion via varied organizational changes, including policy changes, fund reallocations, and enhanced knowledge and practices.
Partnership and organizational development were effective mechanisms for building capacity in heart health promotion. This intervention may have implications for large-scale, community-based, chronic-disease prevention projects.
This paper examines the challenges that have faced the implementation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programmes in Russia since the 1980s in two regions of Russia, and identifies opportunities for improving such efforts.
This study used a mixed methods design consisting of archival data review of health-related policy documents and legislation, and key informant interviews.
CVD is the leading cause of death in Russia, with rapid increases in prevalence following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The MONICA, Tacis and CINDI programmes have played major roles in the development of non-communicable and CVD prevention policies and programmes in Russia since the 1980s. These programmes have assisted in policy and guideline development, and programme implementation. However, significant barriers in realizing such policies and sustaining prevention programmes have been encountered.
Numerous barriers exist in developing and implementing CVD prevention programmes in Russia. More government engagement backed by strong public support is necessary in order to sustain and build capacity for CVD prevention in Russia.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Canadian women. Recent projections suggest that the number of cardiovascular-related deaths among women will continue to increase for at least another decade (Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada, 2003). Nurses are in pivotal roles to facilitate the development of strategies to promote cardiovascular health and prevent CVD in this population. These strategies must move beyond the current focus on the individual, to encompass the bigger picture of population health promotion. This paper revisits the current state of knowledge of the population-based determinants of cardiovascular health in women, incorporates a Canadian perspective by including relevant epidemiological data, and recommends strategies that extend beyond the individual to the broader community, policy, health services and research domains.
This paper presents results from an application of the Community Readiness Model (CRM) as part of a multi-stage community mobilization strategy to engage community leaders, retailers, parents, and school personnel in preventing youth use of inhalants and other harmful legal products in rural Alaska. The CRM is designed to assess readiness to address a single social problem, based on a limited set of key informant interviews. In this study, researchers conducted 32 baseline and 34 post-intervention community readiness assessment interviews in four rural Alaskan communities. These interviews with key informants from the communities were coded and analyzed using CRM methods to yield readiness scores for each community. The aggregate results were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), and the individual community scores were analyzed in the context of the overall study. Significant positive changes in community readiness were found across six readiness dimensions as well as for the overall readiness score. Variation in the degree of changes in readiness across the four communities is attributed to differences in the intervention's implementation. The implications of these results include the potential for CRM assessments to serve as an integral component of a community mobilization strategy and also to offer meaningful feedback to communities participating in prevention research.
Within the field of eHealth, there is a shift towards a patient perspective. However, the focus on the patient often fails to acknowledge and achieve a citizen-centric perspective because there is a lack of understanding of the context and complexities of the person and her relations, interests and activities. In this paper we use the persona of 'Citizen Hanne' for two purposes. Firstly, to highlight and provide detail in the understanding of the citizen perspective and thereby facilitate a shift towards a citizen-centric perspective, which is advanced by many in the field of eHealth. Secondly, we want to further nourish a critical goal of highlighting the challenges in doing citizen-centric eHealth and pointing out the barriers for reaching this goal.
The purpose of this study was to understand the culture, values, skills and activities of staff involved in education and prevention activities in community-based AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) in Ontario, Canada, and to understand the role of evaluation research in their prevention programming. In this qualitative study, 33 staff members from 11 ASOs participated in semi-structured interviews that were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. ASO staff experience tension between a historical grassroots organizational culture characterized by responsiveness and relevance and a more recent culture of professionalization. Target populations have changed from being primarily gay men to an almost unlimited variety of communities. Program emphasis has shifted from education and knowledge dissemination to a broadly based mandate of health promotion, community development, and harm reduction. Integration of evidence of effectiveness, social-behavioral theory, or systematic evaluation is uncommon. Understanding these points of tension is important for the nursing profession when it is engaged with ASOs in programming or evaluation research.
Health promotion emphasizes the importance of community ownership in the governance of community-based programmes, yet little research has been conducted in this area. This study examined perceptions of community ownership among project partners taking responsibility for decision-making related to the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). Project partners were surveyed cross-sectionally at 18 months (T1) and 60 months (T2) into the project. The perceived influence of each project partner was assessed at T1 and T2 for three domains: (i) KSDPP activities; (ii) KSDPP operations; and (iii) Community Advisory Board (CAB) activities. Project staff were perceived to have the greatest influence on KSDPP activities, KSDPP operations and CAB activities at both T1 and T2. High mean scores of perceived influence for CAB members and community researchers, however, suggests that project decision-making was a shared responsibility among multiple community partners. Although academic researcher influence was consistently low, they were satisfied with their level of influence. This was unlike community affiliates, who were less satisfied with their lower level of influence. In keeping with Kanien'kehaka (Mohawk) culture, the findings suggest a participatory democracy or shared decision-making as the primary mode of governance of KSDPP.
The goal of the Community Health Action (CHA) model is to depict community health promotion processes in a manner that can be implemented by community members to achieve their collectively and collaboratively determined actions and outcomes to sustain or improve the health and well-being of their community; the community as a whole, for the benefit of all. The model is unique in its ability to merge the community development process with a compatible community assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation framework. The CHA model supports community participation leading to community-engaged assessment and change. In this article, the CHA model is depicted, its genesis described, and its utility demonstrated.