The importance of the symbolic value and of the product utility for a consumer's involvement in fish products was determined by applying a model to data collected in Denmark in 1999. The relative importance of these two antecedents of product involvement differed between two segments of consumers important to marketing strategies. However, the potential effects of involvement did not differ between the segments. Rather, the customer's involvement ensures that sign value and utility have effects such as greater enjoyment of shopping and higher frequency of usage.
BACKGROUND: The types and quantity of non-response in surveys influence the extent to which the results may be generalized. This study analysed trends in non-response in the Danish Health Interview Surveys from 1987 to 1994 and used the National Patient Registry to assess whether non-response biased the estimated population prevalence of morbidity when solely based on responders. METHODS: The data were for the 23,096 adults sampled for the Danish Health Interview Surveys in 1987, 1991 and 1994. All were followed using the National Patient Registry to obtain such information as hospital admissions. RESULTS: Non-response increased from 20.0% in 1987 to 22.6% in 1994. Four combinations of background variables characterized the non-response: gender and age; gender and civil status; county of residence and age; survey year and age. Non-respondents and respondents had identical gender- and age-standardized hospital admission rates for approximately 5 years before and 2 years after data collection, but non-respondents had a significantly higher rate immediately before and during data collection. Admissions rates were analysed according to reasons for non-response. Refusers had a lower admission rate than respondents before data collection but similar during and after data collection. The rate was higher during the whole period among ill or disabled non-respondents. Among people who could not be contacted during the data collection period a higher admission rate was only found immediately before and during data collection. CONCLUSIONS: Although admission rates differed between respondents and non-respondents these differences were too small to bias the estimated population prevalence of morbidity when solely based on respondents.
Within the field of eHealth, there is a shift towards a patient perspective. However, the focus on the patient often fails to acknowledge and achieve a citizen-centric perspective because there is a lack of understanding of the context and complexities of the person and her relations, interests and activities. In this paper we use the persona of 'Citizen Hanne' for two purposes. Firstly, to highlight and provide detail in the understanding of the citizen perspective and thereby facilitate a shift towards a citizen-centric perspective, which is advanced by many in the field of eHealth. Secondly, we want to further nourish a critical goal of highlighting the challenges in doing citizen-centric eHealth and pointing out the barriers for reaching this goal.
This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement with publics to ensure legitimacy, different biobanks conceptualize their engagement strategies very differently. We suggest that biobanks undertake a broad range of different strategies with regard to engagement. We argue that these different approaches to engagement strategies are contributing to the construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations.
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Reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has traditionally been the sole province of healthcare professionals. Since 2003 in Denmark, consumers have been able to report ADRs directly to the authorities. The objective of this study was to compare ADRs reported by consumers with ADRs reported from other sources, in terms of their type, seriousness and the suspected medicines involved.
The number of ADRs reported to the Danish ADR database from 2004 to 2006 was analysed in terms of category of reporter, seriousness, category of ADRs by system organ class (SOC) and the suspected medicines on level 1 of the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. ADR reports from consumers were compared with reports from other sources (physicians, pharmacists, lawyers, pharmaceutical companies and other healthcare professionals). Chi-square and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to investigate the dependence between type of reporter and reported ADRs (classified by ATC or SOC).
We analysed 6319 ADR reports corresponding to 15 531 ADRs. Consumers reported 11% of the ADRs. Consumers' share of 'serious' ADRs was comparable to that of physicians (approximately 45%) but lower than that of pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. When consumer reports were compared with reports from other sources, consumers were more likely to report ADRs from the following SOCs: 'nervous system disorders' (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.05, 1.53); 'psychiatric disorders' (OR = 1.70; 95% CI 1.31, 2.20) and 'reproductive system and breast disorders' (OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.13, 3.61) than other sources. Compared with other sources, consumers reported fewer ADRs from the SOCs 'blood and lymphatic system disorders' (OR = 0.22; 95% CI 0.08, 0.59) and 'hepatobiliary system disorders' (OR = 0.14; 95% CI 0.04, 0.57). Consumers were more likely to report ADRs from the ATC group N (nervous system) [OR = 2.72; 95% CI 2.34, 3.17], ATC group P (antiparasitic products) [OR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.32, 4.52] and ATC group S (sensory organs) [OR = 4.79; 95% CI 2.04, 11.23] than other sources. Consumers reported fewer ADRs from the ATC group B (blood and blood-forming organs) [OR = 0.04; 95% CI 0.006, 0.32] and the ATC groups J (anti-infective for systemic use) [OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.33, 0.58], L (antioneoplastic and immunomodulating agents) [OR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.12, 0.30] and V (various) [OR = 0.03; 95% CI 0.004, 0.21] than other sources. In the SOC 'nervous system disorders', consumers reported seven categories of ADRs that were not reported by the other sources.
This study showed that compared with other sources, consumers reported different categories of ADRs for different types of medicines. Consumers should be actively included in systematic drug surveillance systems, including clinical settings, and their reports should be taken as seriously as reports from other sources.