This paper examines collaborative arrangements between Aboriginal peoples and the forest sector across Canada. Using a broad definition of collaboration, we identified 1378 arrangements in 474 Aboriginal communities in all Canadian provinces and territories, except Nunavut. We categorize these collaborative arrangements into five broad types: treaties and other formal agreements; planning and management activities; influence on decision-making; forest tenures; and economic roles and partnerships. Consistent data was available for only the first three types, which showed that close to 60% of Aboriginal communities use each approach. However, this masks significant differences between provinces. For example, economic roles and partnerships are in place in all New Brunswick communities and 74% of communities in British Columbia, but only 12% of Manitoban communities. The proportion of communities that have been involved in participatory processes in forest decision-making (such as advisory committees and consultation processes) is particularly high in Quebec with 88% of communities, but only 32% of communities hold forest tenures. We also find that three-quarters of all communities choose to engage in two or more approaches, despite the demands that this can place upon the time and energy of community members. We finally consider how policy environments in different jurisdictions affect the frequency of certain types of collaboration. This empirical study, and the typology that it demonstrates, can inform policy development for Aboriginal involvement in Canadian forestry and help guide future research into broader issues of collaborative governance of natural resources.
This case study of community and university research partnerships utilizes previously developed principles for conducting research in the context of Native American communities to consider how partners understand and apply the principles in developing community-based participatory research partnerships to reduce health disparities. The 7 partnership projects are coordinated through a National Institutes of Health-funded center and involve a variety of tribal members, including both health care professionals and lay persons and native and nonnative university researchers. This article provides detailed examples of how these principles are applied to the projects and discusses the overarching and interrelated emergent themes of sharing power and building trust.
Prevention research aims to address health and social problems via systematic strategies for affecting and documenting change. To produce meaningful and lasting results at the level of the community, prevention research frequently requires investigators to reevaluate the boundaries that have traditionally separated them from the subjects of their investigations. New tools and techniques are required to facilitate collaboration between researchers and communities while maintaining scientific rigor. This article describes the tribal participatory research approach, which was developed to facilitate culturally centered prevention research in American Indian and Alaska Native communities. This approach is discussed within the broader context of community-based participatory research, an increasingly prevalent paradigm in the prevention field. Strengths and limitations of the approach used in the study are presented.
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To present the outcomes of a capacity-building initiative for heart health promotion.
Follow-up study combining quantitative and qualitative methods.
The Western Health Region of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Twenty organizations, including provincial and municipal agencies and community groups engaged in health, education, and recreation activities.
Two strategies were used for this study: partnership development and organizational development. Partnership development included the creation of multilevel partnerships in diverse sectors. Organizational development included the provision of technical support, action research, community activation, and organizational consultation.
Quantitative data included number and type of partnerships, learning opportunities, community activation initiatives, and organizational changes. Qualitative data included information on the effectiveness of partnerships, organizational consultation, and organizational changes.
Results included the development of 204 intersectoral partnerships, creation of a health promotion clearinghouse, 47 workshops attended by approximately 1400 participants, diverse research products, implementation of 18 community heart health promotion initiatives, and increased organizational capacity for heart health promotion via varied organizational changes, including policy changes, fund reallocations, and enhanced knowledge and practices.
Partnership and organizational development were effective mechanisms for building capacity in heart health promotion. This intervention may have implications for large-scale, community-based, chronic-disease prevention projects.
Current human subject research training modules fail to capture ethically relevant cultural aspects of research involving American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) community members. Applying a Community Engaged Research (CEnR) approach, we adapted the Collaborative IRB Training Initiative training module "assessing risk and benefits." In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, followed by debriefing interviews, we evaluated module acceptability and understandability (test scores) among 40 reservation-based community members. Participants who took the adapted module, compared to those who took the standard module, reported higher scores on relevance of the material overall satisfaction, module quiz scores, and a trend toward higher self-efficacy. Implications of the efficacy of this approach for enhancing ethics training and community participation in research within AI/AN and other cultural populations within and outside the United States are discussed.
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The trend toward greater citizen participation in health care policy reform has its roots in the consumerism of the 1960s. This era witnessed the beginning of a dispersion of power in health care and an increase in the number and variety of stakeholders involved in the policy development process. Using the reform Ontario's long-term care policy as a case example, this paper offers observations about the benefits and challenges of participative policy-making. Despite the challenges and the paucity of hard evidence pointing to benefits, the author concludes that broad citizen participation in health care policy reform is a desirable goal. However, the capacity for genuine collaboration remains underdeveloped and requires more systematic refinement.
Community-academic research partnerships have evolved as a multidisciplinary approach to involve those communities experiencing health disparities in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health interventions. Community-academic partnerships are intended to bring together academic researchers and communities to share power, establish trust, foster colearning, enhance strengths and resources, build community capacity, and address community-identified needs and health problems. The purpose of this chapter is to review the current state of community-academic research partnerships in the United States and Canada. We discuss contextual issues; present a review of the current literature; identify the major strengths, challenges, and lessons learned that have emerged during the course of these research collaborations; and explore implications for future research and policy.
This article describes the collaborative efforts of the Sitka Turning Point Towards Health partnership in Sitka, Alaska. Key steps to its success include defining our terms, finding consensus, maintaining an attitude of respect, engaging people--building relationships, creating work groups, sharing leadership, committing to collaborative leadership, building in sustainability, and telling our story. We have chosen to interlace a weaving metaphor to reflect our Alaskan Native American culture and the vision of our partnership.
Comment In: J Public Health Manag Pract. 2002 Jan;8(1):34-511789035
Comment In: J Public Health Manag Pract. 2002 Jan;8(1):36-811789036
The prevailing inequities in healthcare have been well addressed in previous research, especially screening program participation, but less attention has been paid to how to overcome these inequities. This paper explores a key factor of a successful improvement project: collaboration with local doulas to raise cervical cancer screening participation by more than 40 percent in an area with a large number of foreign-born residents.
Data was collected through two focus group discussions with the doulas in order to design interventions and debrief after interventions had been carried out in the community. Various tools were used to analyze the verbal data and monitor the progress of the project.
Three major themes emerged from the focus group discussions: barriers that prevent women from participating in the cervical cancer screening program, interventions to increase participation, and the role of the doulas in the interventions.
This paper suggests that several barriers make participation in cervical cancer screening program more difficult for foreign-born women in Sweden. Specifically, these barriers include lack of knowledge concerning cancer and the importance of preventive healthcare services and practical obstacles such as unavailable child care and language skills. The overarching approach to surmount these barriers was to engage persons with a shared cultural background and mother tongue as the target audience to verbally communicate information. The doulas who helped to identify barriers and plan and execute interventions gained increased confidence and a sense of pride in assisting to bridge the gap between healthcare providers and users.
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Health promotion emphasizes the importance of community ownership in the governance of community-based programmes, yet little research has been conducted in this area. This study examined perceptions of community ownership among project partners taking responsibility for decision-making related to the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). Project partners were surveyed cross-sectionally at 18 months (T1) and 60 months (T2) into the project. The perceived influence of each project partner was assessed at T1 and T2 for three domains: (i) KSDPP activities; (ii) KSDPP operations; and (iii) Community Advisory Board (CAB) activities. Project staff were perceived to have the greatest influence on KSDPP activities, KSDPP operations and CAB activities at both T1 and T2. High mean scores of perceived influence for CAB members and community researchers, however, suggests that project decision-making was a shared responsibility among multiple community partners. Although academic researcher influence was consistently low, they were satisfied with their level of influence. This was unlike community affiliates, who were less satisfied with their lower level of influence. In keeping with Kanien'kehaka (Mohawk) culture, the findings suggest a participatory democracy or shared decision-making as the primary mode of governance of KSDPP.