The Norwegian "Campaign Against Home Accidents" was launched nationwide during 1988 to 1991, with the goal of reducing the incidence of home accidents by 20%. The aim of the campaign was to urge primarily the municipal health services to form local accident prevention groups and to implement local measures for prevention of home accidents. On the basis of two surveys, after one year and at the end of the national campaign, an evaluation was carried out concerning the participation of the municipal health services in the campaign and the impact of the campaign on local accident prevention activities. The results indicate that the national campaign engaged the majority of the municipalities and stimulated local accident prevention work to some extent. Most local activities were health education measures, whereas environmental intervention were less commonly reported. Involvement in the campaign was the variable most related to level of accident prevention activities at the end of the campaign period. However, the relationship was only modest. Restricted economical resources, too little emphasis on environmental change, lack of political involvement and insufficient use of coalition partners at the community level are suggested as the major explanations for the limited effect of the campaign.
To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR) as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level.
We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages.
Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a) the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b) youth-researcher partnerships, and (c) youth action-groups to translate findings.
The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a) being useful by helping elders and (b) being proud of our village.
In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.
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Our objective was to identify the benefits and barriers associated with participation in food programs. We did a content analysis of focus groups with parents (n=21), teachers (n=10), project staff (n=21), and children (n=17) in three low-income Ontario communities. The key benefits identified by the three adult groups were hunger alleviation and social contact opportunities for both parents and children. Parents also benefited from volunteering with and/or participating in food programs because neighbourhood support networks developed. Teachers reported that children who attended breakfast programs became more attentive in school. The food programs also provided an opportunity for nutrition education. Offering food as part of all community programs (not just those designed to increase food availability) encouraged participation and increased attendance. Children thought that attending food programs kept them healthy, and helped them work harder in school. Parents' pride was the main barrier to participation in programs; however, parents who were actively involved in program delivery did not feel stigmatized accepting food. To encourage participation, nutrition professionals should collaborate with local residents to develop and implement community-based food programs.
To assess the effect of a community bicycle helmet education and subsidy program and the further effect of a bicycle rodeo on helmet ownership and use among elementary schoolchildren. The unanticipated effect of a child cyclist fatality was also measured.
Helmet ownership and use were measured in two ways: a questionnaire was sent to all elementary schoolteachers asking about helmet ownership and use by their students; and volunteers counted the children riding their bicycles to school.
Elementary schools in the town of Goderich, population 7400, and the town of Kincardine, population 6227, both on Lake Huron in southwestern Ontario.
More than 80% of the 1050 elementary school students in Goderich and, for comparison, more than 90% of the 1439 elementary school students in Kincardine.
An extensive education campaign with programs, assemblies, teaching aids, speakers, and a colouring and poster contest, coupled with a discount helmet offer in October 1991. Incentives to helmet use, such as bicycle rodeos, took place in May 1992 and 1993. A child cyclist not wearing a helmet was fatally injured in September 1992.
Teachers polled students on helmet use and student volunteers counted children riding bicycles and noted helmet use.
A total of 250 helmets were purchased, and helmet use was observed to increase among 5- to 14-year-old children from 0.75% to 12.8% during 9 months. Program effect was significantly greater on younger children, and girls used helmets more often than boys did. The cycling fatality in Goderich was associated with a dramatic increase in helmet use (to more than 50%), a significantly higher rate than in Kincardine. A second subsidy and rodeo did not further increase helmet use.
A small community with limited resources can mount a bicycle helmet education and incentive program with high exposure and participation rates by children. Despite an initial 17-fold increase in observed helmet use, more than 87% of cyclists still did not wear helmets. The cycling fatality was associated with a significant increase in helmet use.
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CHARGE association is a non-random collection of congenital anomalies. The condition is becoming more widely known to medical and educational professionals. The number of children diagnosed is increasing, probably because of the greater awareness of this condition. This paper considers some of the long-term management problems which are often deferred in the early months, when acute life threatening problems take priority. Questionnaires were sent to parents via the CHARGE Association Family Support Group, UK. Thirty-nine were returned and incomplete information was sought by personal contact or telephone. The majority of children were known professionally to one or both authors and information was therefore checked from medical and educational notes. There is still widespread misunderstanding about the impact of multiple disability, especially when this includes multi-sensory impairment, on the early development of the child. Therefore, the information collected from the study has been from an educational and medical perspective, thereby aiding the understanding of these complex problems. At the parents request, information was gathered about certain teratogens, of which Lindane, an organophosphate, is highlighted.
The study examined the role of child level characteristics of age, gender, disorder and experience of family breakdown on parent involvement in the treatment of children and adolescents in a usual clinical care setting. Data from the national register of 20,856 children and adolescents treated in psychiatric hospitals and clinics in Norway in 2002 were analyzed using a three-level hierarchical model. Consultations attended by the child, mother and father were constructed as level 1, child characteristics as level 2 and clinics as level 3. Results indicated that 42% of the variance was explained by within-family differences of consultations and 56% by child characteristics. Only 2% of the variance was explained by clinic-to-clinic differences. In the total model, child factors of gender, disorder and family breakdown (but not age) were significant predictors of consultation with children and parents. Therapists should take into account the role of the gender, disorder and family breakdown in promoting parent involvement and hindering premature termination.
This article examines the use of action research strategies over a four-year period in developing and evaluating a prevention program for children and their families. This research has taken place in a low-income multi-cultural neighbourhood in Sudbury. Strategies to foster participation and the practical relevance of findings are described, both for the initial proposal development stage, and for the period after a local program was funded as part of a multi-site evaluation project. After reviewing the challenges inherent in doing action research within a multicultural neighbourhood, and within a multi-site design, we discuss which strategies have worked, and what remains to be resolved.