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Animal spare parts? A Canadian public consultation on xenotransplantation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187235
Source
Sci Eng Ethics. 2002 Oct;8(4):579-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
Edna F Einsiedel
Heather Ross
Author Affiliation
Communication Studies Program, Faculty of Communication and Culture, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada. einsiede@ucalgary.ca
Source
Sci Eng Ethics. 2002 Oct;8(4):579-91
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Rights
Animals
Attitude to Health
Bioethics
Canada
Clinical Trials as Topic
Consumer Participation
Ethics, Research
Health Policy
Humans
National Health Programs - ethics
Technology Assessment, Biomedical - ethics
Transplantation, Heterologous - ethics - psychology
Abstract
Xenotransplantation, or the use of animal cells, tissues and organs for humans, has been promoted as an important solution to the worldwide shortage of organs. While scientific studies continue to be done to address problems of rejection and the possibility of animal-to-human virus transfer, socio-ethical and legal questions have also been raised around informed consent, life-long monitoring, animal welfare and animal rights, and appropriate regulatory practices. Many calls have also been made to consult publics before policy decisions are made. This paper describes the Canadian public consultation process on xenotransplantation carried out by the Canadian Public Health Association in an arm's length process from Health Canada, the ministry overseeing government health policy and regulation. Focusing on six citizen for a conducted around the country patterned after the citizen jury deliberative approach, the paper describes the citizen panelists' recommendations to hold off on proceeding with clinical trials and the rationales behind this recommendation. The consultation process is discussed in the context of constructive technology assessment, a framework which argues for broader input into earlier stages of technology innovation, particularly at the technology design stage.
PubMed ID
12501726 View in PubMed
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Attitudes of trained Swedish lay rescuers toward CPR performance in an emergency. A survey of 1012 recently trained CPR rescuers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72217
Source
Resuscitation. 2000 Mar;44(1):27-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2000
Author
A. Axelsson
A. Thorén
S. Holmberg
J. Herlitz
Author Affiliation
Division of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Röda Srâket 4, SE-413 45, Göteborg, Sweden. asa.axelsson@alfa.telenordia.se
Source
Resuscitation. 2000 Mar;44(1):27-36
Date
Mar-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude to Health
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation - education
Consumer Participation
Data Collection
Emergencies
Female
Health Education - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Professional Competence
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sweden
Abstract
59 years old. Only 1% had attended the course because of their own or a relative's cardiac disease. Ninety-four per cent believed there was a minor to major risk of serious disease transmission while performing CPR. When predicting their willingness to perform CPR in six scenarios, 17% would not start CPR on a young drug addict, 7% would not perform CPR on an unkempt man, while 97% were sure about starting CPR on a relative and 91% on a known person. In four of six scenarios, respondents from rural areas were significantly more positive than respondents from metropolitan areas about starting CPR. In conclusion, readiness to perform CPR on a known person is high among trained CPR rescuers, while hesitation about performing CPR on a stranger is evident. Respondents from rural areas are more frequently positive about starting CPR than those from metropolitan areas.
PubMed ID
10699697 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular health in Canadian women: the bigger picture revisited.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature171903
Source
Can J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005;15(3):53-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Jo-Ann V Sawatzky
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Nursing, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. joanne_sawatzky@umanitoba.ca
Source
Can J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005;15(3):53-62
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
Canada - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cause of Death
Community Health Planning - organization & administration
Consumer Participation
Educational Status
Evidence-Based Medicine
Female
Forecasting
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health planning
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Models, Nursing
Models, organizational
Nurse's Role
Risk factors
Risk Reduction Behavior
Social Support
Social Values
Socioeconomic Factors
Women's health
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Canadian women. Recent projections suggest that the number of cardiovascular-related deaths among women will continue to increase for at least another decade (Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada, 2003). Nurses are in pivotal roles to facilitate the development of strategies to promote cardiovascular health and prevent CVD in this population. These strategies must move beyond the current focus on the individual, to encompass the bigger picture of population health promotion. This paper revisits the current state of knowledge of the population-based determinants of cardiovascular health in women, incorporates a Canadian perspective by including relevant epidemiological data, and recommends strategies that extend beyond the individual to the broader community, policy, health services and research domains.
PubMed ID
16295798 View in PubMed
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Changing concepts of health for Canadians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature252161
Source
Hosp Adm Can. 1975 Jul;17(7):13-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1975

Closer to home: the case for experiential participation in health reform.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197783
Source
Can J Public Health. 1999 Jan-Feb;90(1):30-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
J W Higgins
Author Affiliation
School of Physical Education, University of Victoria, BC. jwharfhi@uvic.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 1999 Jan-Feb;90(1):30-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Attitude to Health
British Columbia
Consumer Participation
Focus Groups
Health Care Reform - organization & administration
Health Planning - organization & administration
Humans
Middle Aged
Minority Groups - psychology
Needs Assessment
Questionnaires
Abstract
This article describes partial results from a case study of community participation in "New Directions for a Healthy B.C.", a now-abandoned health reform policy. For this study, focus groups were conducted to explore the perspectives of traditionally under-represented citizens in understanding reasons for nonparticipation and to identify strategies for fostering participation in the health reform process. The findings indicate that participating in traditional ways- committee meetings, public fora, completing surveys--was not relevant to the realities of these individuals. Yet, rather than merely refusing to be involved, focus group members extended an invitation for health planning group members to experience their daily lives; an idea that is referred to in the literature as 'experiential participation.' In order to foster broad-based participation in community health initiatives, the findings from this study argue for a new understanding of, and appreciation for what actually constitutes participation.
PubMed ID
10910562 View in PubMed
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Community-based HIV education and prevention workers respond to a changing environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174734
Source
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2005 Jan-Feb;16(1):29-36
Publication Type
Article
Author
Dale Guenter
Basanti Majumdar
Dennis Willms
Robb Travers
Gina Browne
Greg Robinson
Author Affiliation
Department of Family, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2005 Jan-Feb;16(1):29-36
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Attitude to Health
Career Choice
Community Health Services - organization & administration
Consumer Participation
Female
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Harm Reduction
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Health Services Research - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Needs Assessment - organization & administration
Nursing Methodology Research
Ontario - epidemiology
Organizational Culture
Organizational Innovation
Organizational Objectives
Patient Education as Topic - organization & administration
Prejudice
Program Evaluation
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to understand the culture, values, skills and activities of staff involved in education and prevention activities in community-based AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) in Ontario, Canada, and to understand the role of evaluation research in their prevention programming. In this qualitative study, 33 staff members from 11 ASOs participated in semi-structured interviews that were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. ASO staff experience tension between a historical grassroots organizational culture characterized by responsiveness and relevance and a more recent culture of professionalization. Target populations have changed from being primarily gay men to an almost unlimited variety of communities. Program emphasis has shifted from education and knowledge dissemination to a broadly based mandate of health promotion, community development, and harm reduction. Integration of evidence of effectiveness, social-behavioral theory, or systematic evaluation is uncommon. Understanding these points of tension is important for the nursing profession when it is engaged with ASOs in programming or evaluation research.
PubMed ID
15903276 View in PubMed
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Community engagement with genetics: public perceptions and expectations about genetics research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274526
Source
Health Expect. 2015 Oct;18(5):1413-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Holly Etchegary
Jane Green
Patrick Parfrey
Catherine Street
Daryl Pullman
Source
Health Expect. 2015 Oct;18(5):1413-25
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
Consumer Participation
Genetic Research - ethics
Humans
Information Dissemination
Newfoundland and Labrador
Public Opinion
Public Policy
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Knowledge of molecular biology and genomics continues to expand rapidly, promising numerous opportunities for improving health. However, a key aspect of the success of genomic medicine is related to public understanding and acceptance.
Using community consultations and an online survey, we explored public attitudes and expectations about genomics research.
Thirty-three members of the general public in Newfoundland, Canada, took part in the community sessions, while 1024 Atlantic Canadians completed the online survey. Overall, many participants noted they lacked knowledge about genetics and associated research and took the opportunity to ask numerous questions throughout sessions. Participants were largely hopeful about genomics research in its capacity to improve health, not only for current residents, but also for future generations. However, they did not accept such research uncritically, and a variety of complex issues and questions arose during the community consultations and were reflected in survey responses.
With the proliferation of biobanks and the rapid pace of discoveries in genomics research, public support will be crucial to realize health improvements. If researchers can engage the public in regular, transparent dialogue, this two-way communication could allow greater understanding of the research process and the design of efficient and effective genetic health services, informed by the public that will use them.
PubMed ID
23968492 View in PubMed
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Community Health Action Model: health promotion by the community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155375
Source
Res Theory Nurs Pract. 2008;22(3):182-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Frances E Racher
Robert C Annis
Author Affiliation
Brandon University, School of Health Studies, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada. racher@brandonu.ca
Source
Res Theory Nurs Pract. 2008;22(3):182-91
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
Community Health Nursing - organization & administration
Community Health Planning - organization & administration
Consumer Participation - methods
Cooperative Behavior
Focus Groups
Health Promotion - organization & administration
Health Services Research
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Manitoba
Models, Nursing
Models, organizational
Needs Assessment - organization & administration
Nursing Methodology Research
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Quality of Life
Rural health services - organization & administration
Social Identification
Systems Analysis
Trust
Abstract
The goal of the Community Health Action (CHA) model is to depict community health promotion processes in a manner that can be implemented by community members to achieve their collectively and collaboratively determined actions and outcomes to sustain or improve the health and well-being of their community; the community as a whole, for the benefit of all. The model is unique in its ability to merge the community development process with a compatible community assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation framework. The CHA model supports community participation leading to community-engaged assessment and change. In this article, the CHA model is depicted, its genesis described, and its utility demonstrated.
PubMed ID
18763474 View in PubMed
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Community perception of rural hospital conversion/closure: re-conceptualising as a critical incident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182613
Source
Aust J Rural Health. 2003 Oct;11(5):249-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Pammla M Petrucka
P Susan Wagner
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. pammal.petrucka@sasktel.net
Source
Aust J Rural Health. 2003 Oct;11(5):249-53
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
Bed Conversion - standards
Community Health Planning
Community-Institutional Relations - standards
Consumer Participation
Fear
Health Care Reform - standards
Health Facility Closure - standards
Health Services Research
Humans
Models, Psychological
National Health Programs - standards
Public Opinion
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Saskatchewan
Abstract
In this article, a consideration of the role and meaning of the rural hospital is contextualised within the health reform environment in Saskatchewan (Canada). Individual and community perceptions of the impact of the conversion/closure of a rural hospital are often unheard and more often unheeded. Some researchers suggest hospital conversion/closure is a devastating event in the life of rural communities, yielding long-lasting medical, economic and psychological consequences.
This article examines the concept of critical incidents with the intent of proposing a working definition of the concept. Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) construct of appraisal provides the framework for discussion and re-conceptualisation of critical incidents.
The recommendation is to consider the adoption of an alternate definition of critical incident shifting away from professional or external delineation of an event's meaning. The proposed definition states that a critical incident is any external event that alters an individual's or community's life from the perspective of that individual or community. Finally, the conversion/closure of a rural hospital is considered within this re-conceptualised 'critical incident' definition.
PubMed ID
14641223 View in PubMed
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Community resiliency as a measure of collective health status: perspectives from rural communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152824
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2008 Dec;40(4):92-110
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Judith C Kulig
Dana Edge
Brenda Joyce
Author Affiliation
School of Health Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. kulig@uleth.ca
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2008 Dec;40(4):92-110
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Alberta
Attitude to Health
Consumer Participation - methods - psychology
Female
Group Processes
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health status
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Leadership
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Psychological
Nursing Methodology Research
Problem Solving
Qualitative Research
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Social Identification
Social Support
Abstract
Community resiliency is a theoretical framework useful for describing the process used by communities to address adversity. A mixed-method 2-year case study was conducted to gather information about community resiliency in 2 rural communities. This article focuses on the themes generated from qualitative interviews with 55 members of these communities. The participants viewed community as a place of interdependence and interaction. The majority saw community resiliency as the ability to address challenges. Characteristics included physical and social infrastructure, population characteristics, conceptual characteristics, and problem-solving processes. Barriers included negative individual attitudes and lack of infrastructure in rural communities. Nurses could play a key role in enhancing the resiliency of rural communities by developing and implementing programs based on the Community Resiliency Model, which was supported in this study.
PubMed ID
19186787 View in PubMed
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54 records – page 1 of 6.