Health promotion emphasizes the importance of community ownership in the governance of community-based programmes, yet little research has been conducted in this area. This study examined perceptions of community ownership among project partners taking responsibility for decision-making related to the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). Project partners were surveyed cross-sectionally at 18 months (T1) and 60 months (T2) into the project. The perceived influence of each project partner was assessed at T1 and T2 for three domains: (i) KSDPP activities; (ii) KSDPP operations; and (iii) Community Advisory Board (CAB) activities. Project staff were perceived to have the greatest influence on KSDPP activities, KSDPP operations and CAB activities at both T1 and T2. High mean scores of perceived influence for CAB members and community researchers, however, suggests that project decision-making was a shared responsibility among multiple community partners. Although academic researcher influence was consistently low, they were satisfied with their level of influence. This was unlike community affiliates, who were less satisfied with their lower level of influence. In keeping with Kanien'kehaka (Mohawk) culture, the findings suggest a participatory democracy or shared decision-making as the primary mode of governance of KSDPP.
This study examines psychometric properties of a community activation assessment scale used for the evaluation of the Quebec project within the Federal Provincial Heart Health Initiative. The scale is composed of three sub scales, one for each of the intervention target risk factors.
Data were collected by telephone interviews conducted with 199 key informants from the 24 communities of the project. Reliability was studied using Cronbach's alpha coefficients and intraclass correlations. Validity was explored with factor analysis techniques.
Subscales' internal consistency were very good, ranging from 0.71 to 0.83, but intraclass correlations between informants from the same communities were low. Factor analyses indicated a unidimensional structure for each scale.
These results show that the scale seems to provide reasonable assessments of the opinion of key informants regarding activation in their community. However, ranking communities based on the aggregated scores from local key informants may lead to classification problems.
Community public health interventions based on citizen and community participation are increasingly discussed as promising avenues for the reduction of health inequalities and the promotion of social justice. However, very few authors have provided explicit principles and guidelines for planning and implementing such interventions, especially when they are linked with research. Traditional approaches to public health programming emphasise expert knowledge, advanced detailed planning, and the separation of research from intervention. Despite the usefulness of these approaches for evaluating targeted narrow-focused interventions, they may not be appropriate in community health promotion, especially in Aboriginal communities. Using the experience of the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project, in Canada, this paper elaborates four principles as basic components for an implementation model of community programmes. The principles are: (1) the integration of community people and researchers as equal partners in every phase of the project, (2) the structural and functional integration of the intervention and evaluation research components, (3) having a flexible agenda responsive to demands from the broader environment, and (4) the creation of a project that represents learning opportunities for all those involved. The emerging implementation model for community interventions, as exemplified by this project, is one that conceives a programme as a dynamic social space, the contours and vision of which are defined through an ongoing negotiation process.
An ecological lens was used to deconstruct the programming approach and unpack physical activity interventions implemented through the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project. Despite a surge of interest in ecologically based health promotion programming, optimal combinations of interventions and programming approaches to promote community physical activity involvement have not been systematically studied. The authors obtained physical activity intervention descriptions through archive retrieval and face-to-face interviews with intervention staff. Programming approach, intervention targets, strategies for change, and delivery settings were assessed by applying the intervention analysis procedure to intervention descriptions. A complex intervention package was found containing a host of multitarget, multisetting intervention strategies designed and implemented through dynamic exchanges between a diversity of community partners. This study provides a first step toward better understanding community intervention packages and programming strategies for promoting physical activity involvement within a community setting.