Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.
Epidemiology is the basic science of public health. It combines medical and social sciences, both of which are developing with new inventions. Therefore, the role of epidemiology and its boundaries are also changing over time. An important role of epidemiology is to develop and implement community-based control programmes for major diseases in the community. Such programmes are essential for large scale public health policy. It is necessary that epidemiological research can as freely as possible test new methods of disease prevention and health promotion. The first community-based control programme for cardiovascular diseases, the North Karelia Project is reviewed against this background. At present, it is still possible to define the boundaries of epidemiology geographically and culturally, but in the future, however, it will become more difficult. There is no doubt that epidemiology will remain as the basic science of public health but the scope of public health problems are growing much wider. These include the prevention of the final epidemic--the destruction of our planet by nuclear bombs. In the control of the existing epidemics and in the prevention of new ones the boundaries of epidemiology cannot stay rigid but they must be changing as new facts about the emerging public health problems are identified.
The nutrition education program, sponsored by the Hudson's Bay Company, in remote northern communities, both Inuit and Indian, is described. The program identifies nutritious foods in the company's community stores by coding in the colours associated with the food groups of Canada's Food Guide. It involves the cooperation of key individuals from the community and various community agencies and organizations.
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1217.