A theoretical model of involvement in consumption of food products was tested in a representative survey of Norwegian households for the particular case of consuming seafood as a common family meal. The empirical study is based on using structural equation approach to test construct validity of measures and the empirical fit of the theoretical model. Attitudes, negative feelings, social norms and moral obligation were proved to be important, reliable and different constructs and explained 63% of the variation in seafood involvement. Negative feelings and moral obligation was the most important antecedents of involvement. Both our proposed model and modified model with seafood involvement as a mediator fit well with the data and proved our expectations in a promising way.
This research was prompted by the clinical presentation of workers from a variety of gaming occupations with injuries and illnesses and multiple health and safety concerns.
Using participatory action research principles, 51 gaming workers in Ontario and 20 gaming workers in Manitoba were consulted during a series of focus group sessions. Mapping exercises were used to survey the participants about their health concerns, perceived occupational hazards and the impact of working conditions on their personal lives. Participants were then asked to prioritize their concerns and make recommendations for improvements.
Gaming workers from both provinces identified similar health, hazard and psycho-social concerns. They prioritized the issues of stress, ergonomics, indoor air quality (including second-hand smoke and temperature), biological hazards, physical hazards and noise.
This study points to a need to more fully investigate and address health and safety issues in the gaming industry. It also demonstrates the effectiveness of a worker-driven, participatory consultation.
Enabling people to make an informed choice on whether to change consumption behavior is ultimately the objective of any fish consumption advisory. This will occur only if people are aware of the advisory, know and understand the advisory information, and believe the information to be true. Interactive, meaningful communication and the opportunity to participate in the process to develop and review advisories are key to achieving these attributes. A case study was undertaken in a community in Alberta, Canada (where an existing advisory was under consideration for review) to determine public awareness, knowledge, compliance, communication effectiveness, information needs, and desire for involvement related to the advisory. The information obtained from this case study was used to develop 14 guiding principles as a foundation for the incorporation of public participation and risk communication into the process of developing and reviewing fish consumption advisories.
Reflecting the increasing trend of consumers as providers in mental health services, the standards for Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams in Ontario, Canada require the hiring of at least 0.5 full-time equivalent consumer as a service provider. Through a mail-out survey, we explored how the consumer position has been integrated into these ACT teams. It was found that despite some variation in the roles and degree of integration of the consumers on these teams, consumers were generally well-incorporated team members with equal or better job satisfaction as compared to other employees.
The focus of this commentary is on the relevance of the Canadian experience for developing countries. It highlights the growing urgency poor countries face in preserving their major human and social capital--community solidarity and family care. Developing countries face a double burden of disease--communicable and non-communicable diseases alike, with very few, and often shrinking, resources. While poorer countries will be able to learn about the essential elements of home-based care from the examples of Canada and other industrialized countries, they do need to develop their own systems based upon their economic, social, political and cultural realities. The primary health care system would seem to provide a foundation for the provision of long-term care on a sustainable and cost-effective basis. In contrast to the often-prevailing practice in developed countries, home-based care services could be integrated into the overall health and social system. Functional disability, regardless of disease aetiology or age of the care recipient, as well as the needs of family caregivers would thus become the defining elements of service eligibility. While the question remains open as to how much poor countries can learn from the experience of others, developing countries do have the opportunity to initiate a rational process where they first provide support to communities and informal caregivers and help to maintain patients in their homes and only later develop other service elements.
Comment On: Healthc Pap. 2000 Fall;1(4):9-3612811170
A culture of safety in healthcare will not be achieved until the fragmentation that currently characterizes the delivery system is replaced by an alignment of the many component parts, including providers, patients and their families and front-line workers on the "sharp end'--physicians, nurses and pharmacists. A systemic approach should be introduced that would recognize the interacting nature of the delivery system's component parts, and that a change in one component of the system will provoke a change in another part. Consumers and their families can be empowered through programs that raise awareness, prevent error and mitigate its effect when error does happen. Within the system, the "safety sciences' can provide guides to effective work processes. Finally, it is critical to capture knowledge of what type of error occurs in what place and to elucidate strategies to prevent the error.