Prepared meals distributed by municipalities is a service to elderly people, or persons with health related impairments, who live in their own home, have difficulties preparing their own food and cannot meet their food requirements in any other way. This study aimed to provide a brief picture of how elderly people living at home perceive the food they receive through their municipal food service and what is important to them. The data was collected using questionnaires. 274 out of 276 participants answered the questionnaire (n=173 women 62% and n=101 man 37%). The data was analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed that the elderly persons receiving meals through the service were often satisfied, especially with the size of the portions and the delivery time. Those who had been using the food delivery service for a longer time were not satisfied with the alternative dishes they were been offered. There was no significant difference between the views of either gender. Further, those who were receiving special food were, in general, unsatisfied with the meals delivered. Development of the food distribution service by systematic quality insurance and interactive knowledge exchange between the producers and consumers seems to be a way to promote a more holistic and individual adjusted service. Evaluation of the municipal FD service is a powerful tool that can contribute to the development of this service. The food service can be improved and consequently even the quality of life and health of its receivers. The present survey should be revisited and developed in order to detect differences between genders.
Unhealthy food in advertising has been suggested as a mediator for the increase in diet-related illness. This study quantitatively investigates changes in food advertising between 1995 and 2014 in terms of food categories promoted, macronutrient content, and percentage of foods classified as heathy or unhealthy from a sample of 7,199 ads from three Swedish food magazines. With the exception of increased alcoholic beverage and decreased carbohydrate-rich-food promotion, no monotonic trends of increasingly unhealthy food advertisement are found. From these findings, it is argued that food magazine advertising is not a mediator of the adverse dietary trend.
The main purpose of this study is to identify consumer segments based on the importance of product attributes when buying seafood for homemade meals on weekdays. There is a particular focus on the relative importance of the packaging attributes of fresh seafood. The results are based on a representative survey of 840 Norwegian consumers between 18 and 80 years of age. This study found that taste, freshness, nutritional value and naturalness are the most important attributes for the home consumption of seafood. Except for the high importance of information about expiration date, most other packaging attributes have only medium importance. Three consumer segments are identified based on the importance of 33 attributes associated with seafood: Perfectionists, Quality Conscious and Careless Consumers. The Quality Conscious consumers feel more self-confident in their evaluation of quality, and are less concerned with packaging, branding, convenience and emotional benefits compared to the Perfectionists. Careless Consumers are important as regular consumers of convenient and pre-packed seafood products and value recipe information on the packaging. The seafood industry may use the results provided in this study to strengthen their positioning of seafood across three different consumer segments.
A comparative evaluation on the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) on quality and shelf life of Atlantic salmon loins pasteurized with microwave and conventional technology was conducted. The experimental design allowed CO2 to enter the salmon muscle before (soluble gas stabilization [SGS] + vacuum) or after pasteurization (CO2 emitter + vacuum), whereas the control samples (vacuum only) were not presented for CO2 . This setup resulted in six different groups; three heated with microwaves and three with conventional pasteurization. The core temperature of microwave samples was 58.8 ± 2.2 °C, whereas the surface temperature was equal to the oven temperature (62 °C) during conventional pasteurization and close to the core temperature during microwave pasteurization (57.6 ± 1.4 °C). Microwave-heated samples showed higher microbial growth; decreased shelf life; and darker (lower L* -value), more reddish (higher a* -value), and yellowish (higher b* -value) colors compared to conventional-heated salmon. Lowest liquid loss (LL) was observed in salmon packaged with the CO2 emitter, whereas a SGS step prior to pasteurization did not affect the LL negatively as compared to samples packaged in vacuum only. Treatment with CO2 , independent of the prestep using SGS or an emitter, resulted in increased shelf life. Protein denaturation, microbial growth, product color, product shelf life, and sensory properties of the salmon loin were significantly affected by the applied pasteurization method (microwave- or conventional pasteurization). However, the heat load was probably too high to detect differences resulting from the pretreatment using SGS or packaging with CO2 emitter. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Recent developments with increased time pressure from both work and past time activities have led to a tremendous increase in the demand for convenient, tasty ready-to-use food options. Furthermore, contemporary trends for consumption of fresh or lightly processed seafood stress the need to develop processing methods that allow a fulfillment of these demands, while still offering a reasonable shelf life. Carbon dioxide in combination with either microwave or conventional pasteurization is innovative processing technology that can meet consumer's demand of such products.
Global environmental challenges require changes in both the production and the consumption of goods. In this paper we analyse how consumers perceive the high environmental burden of meat. We analysed consumer environmental consciousness, including problem awareness and a support to action dimensions, latter including perceived self-efficacy as well as solutions to problems. The solutions were positioned on a continuum from increasing the efficiency of production to discussing sufficiency levels in consumption practices (techno-optimism, local meat, organic meat and meat reduction, respectively). We used a statistically representative survey sample (n = 1890) from the population of Finland and cluster analysis to explore differences among consumers. The analysis revealed that most Finns seem to be rather unsure of the study topic. At the same time they tend to have a comparably high level of self-efficacy (55 per cent of respondents) and endorsement of particularly local meat solution type (55%), followed by organic meat (35%), meat reduction (25%) and techno-optimism (15%), though the neutral stand was the most common one across the data. We also identified six consumer groups that reveal not only a high number of Highly unsure consumers (40%), but also some Rather conscious (20%) and a relatively small number of Highly conscious (8%). In addition, there were also easily observable groups of Careless conscious (14%), Rather unsure (9%) and Resistant (8%). The results highlight the need for a multitude of political actions to guide meat consumption, as there are groups that may benefit from practical tools for making dietary changes as well as groups in need for more comprehensive selection of measures, including environmental information.
Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales.
Beetroot is a diverse vegetable available in different shapes and colours. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sensory qualities, and sugar and dry matter content of five beetroot varieties in relationship to the appropriateness for raw, boiled and pan-fried preparation.
Sensory evaluation by descriptive sensory analysis and consumer tests showed clear distinctions between red varieties Taunus, Rocket and Pablo, and the pink-white striped Chioggia and yellow Burpee's Golden in raw preparations. However, variety delimination was more difficult after boiling and pan-frying. Different sensory qualities were important for beetroot appropriateness in raw, boiled and pan-fried preparations. Appropriateness of raw beetroots was associated with high sensory scores in beetroot flavour, crispness and juiciness, and low scores in bitterness. Appropriateness of boiled beetroots was related to high scores in beetroot and earthy flavours. Pan-fried beetroot appropriateness was associated with high scores in beetroot flavour, colour intensity and crispness.
This study showed that the quality of raw materials is integral in culinary preparations. These results can be used to guide consumers in the use of beetroot in culinary preparations and subsequently increase consumption.
Approximately one quarter of the food supplied for human consumption is wasted across the food supply chain. In the high income countries, the food waste generated at the household level represents about half of the total food waste, making this level one of the biggest contributors to food waste. Yet, there is still little evidence regarding the determinants of consumers' food waste behaviour. The present study examines the effect of psycho-social factors, food-related routines, household perceived capabilities and socio-demographic characteristics on self-reported food waste. Survey data gathered among 1062 Danish respondents measured consumers' intentions not to waste food, planning, shopping and reuse of leftovers routines, perceived capability to deal with household food-related activities, injunctive and moral norms, attitudes towards food waste, and perceived behavioural control. Results show that perceived behavioural control and routines related to shopping and reuse of leftovers are the main drivers of food waste, while planning routines contribute indirectly. In turn, the routines are related to consumers' perceived capabilities to deal with household related activities. With regard to intentional processes, injunctive norms and attitudes towards food waste have an impact while moral norms and perceived behavioural control make no significant contribution. Implications of the study for initiatives aimed at changing consumers' food waste behaviour are discussed.
Workplace lunches are recurrent meal occasions that can contribute to the general well-being of employees. The objective of our research was to study which factors influence consumers' satisfaction with these meals by exploring the relative role of food-related, personal, situational factors. Using a longitudinal approach, we monitored a total of 71 participants compiled and experienced 519 meals from their workplace canteen buffet during a three-month period; in addition the composed lunches were photographed. Before and after the lunch choice period respondents filled in a questionnaire on several meal-related variables. A mixed modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Meal satisfaction was directly associated with a positive ambience and a positive evaluation of both the quality of the food eaten and the buffet assortment, whereas the meal's energy content did not contribute to meal satisfaction. Additionally, meal satisfaction was associated with a more positive mood, lower hunger level as well as feeling less busy and stressed after lunch. The buffet assortment, a more positive mood before lunch and mindful eating contributed to the perceived food quality, but not associated with the hunger level before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but equally important is the ambience in the lunch situation. Most of the ambience factors were related to available time and mental resources of the participants and the possibility to share the meal with close colleagues. These are factors that can be facilitated by the service provider, but not directly influenced.
There is a demand for a flexible and individually tailored patient education to meet patients' specific needs and priorities, but this area has seldom been studied in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA), a family of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify needs and priorities in patient education in patients with SpA. A second aim was to investigate patients' experiences and preferences of receiving patient education.
Data collection included a questionnaire survey with the Educational Needs Assessment Tool (ENAT) and interviews, using a mixed-methods design. Patients were identified through a specialist clinic register. Descriptive data are presented as mean with standard deviation, or frequencies. Chi-square test and independent-samples t-test were used for group comparisons. A manifest qualitative conventional content analysis was conducted to explore patients' experiences and needs in patient education, based on two focus groups (n = 6) and five individual interviews.
Almost half (43%) of the 183 SpA patients had educational needs, particularly regarding aspects of self-help, feelings, and the disease process. More educational needs were reported by women and in patients with higher disease activity, while duration of disease did not affect the needs. The qualitative analysis highlighted the importance of obtaining a guiding, reliable, and easily available patient education for management of SpA. Individual contacts with healthcare professionals were of importance, but newer media were also requested.
There are considerable educational needs in patients with SpA, and education concerning self-help, feelings, and the diseases process were raised as important issues. Healthcare professionals need to consider the importance of presenting varied formats of education based on the experiences and preferences of patients with SpA.