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2nd Norwegian Environmental Toxicology Symposium: joining forces for an integrated search for environmental solutions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature90204
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72(3-4):111
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009

21st-century modeled permafrost carbon emissions accelerated by abrupt thaw beneath lakes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297387
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-15-2018
Author
Katey Walter Anthony
Thomas Schneider von Deimling
Ingmar Nitze
Steve Frolking
Abraham Emond
Ronald Daanen
Peter Anthony
Prajna Lindgren
Benjamin Jones
Guido Grosse
Author Affiliation
Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA. kmwalteranthony@alaska.edu.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 08 15; 9(1):3262
Date
08-15-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Carbon - chemistry
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - chemistry
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods - trends
Freezing
Geography
Geologic Sediments - chemistry
Global warming
Lakes - chemistry
Methane - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Permafrost - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Abstract
Permafrost carbon feedback (PCF) modeling has focused on gradual thaw of near-surface permafrost leading to enhanced carbon dioxide and methane emissions that accelerate global climate warming. These state-of-the-art land models have yet to incorporate deeper, abrupt thaw in the PCF. Here we use model data, supported by field observations, radiocarbon dating, and remote sensing, to show that methane and carbon dioxide emissions from abrupt thaw beneath thermokarst lakes will more than double radiative forcing from circumpolar permafrost-soil carbon fluxes this century. Abrupt thaw lake emissions are similar under moderate and high representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), but their relative contribution to the PCF is much larger under the moderate warming scenario. Abrupt thaw accelerates mobilization of deeply frozen, ancient carbon, increasing 14C-depleted permafrost soil carbon emissions by ~125-190% compared to gradual thaw alone. These findings demonstrate the need to incorporate abrupt thaw processes in earth system models for more comprehensive projection of the PCF this century.
PubMed ID
30111815 View in PubMed
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30 years of data reveal dramatic increase in abundance of brown trout following the removal of a small hydrodam.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292608
Source
J Environ Manage. 2017 Dec 15; 204(Pt 1):467-471
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-15-2017
Author
Kim Birnie-Gauvin
Martin H Larsen
Jan Nielsen
Kim Aarestrup
Author Affiliation
DTU Aqua, Section for Freshwater Fisheries and Ecology, Vejlsøvej 39, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark. Electronic address: kbir@aqua.dtu.dk.
Source
J Environ Manage. 2017 Dec 15; 204(Pt 1):467-471
Date
Dec-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Denmark
Ecosystem
Rivers
Trout
Water Movements
Abstract
Humans and freshwater ecosystems have a long history of cohabitation. Today, nearly all major rivers of the world have an in-stream structure which changes water flow, substrate composition, vegetation, and fish assemblage composition. The realization of these effects and their subsequent impacts on population sustainability and conservation has led to a collective effort aimed to find ways to mitigate these impacts. Barrier removal has recently received greater interest as a potential solution to restore river connectivity, and reestablish high quality habitats, suitable for feeding, refuge and spawning of fish. In the present study, we present thirty years of data from electrofishing surveys obtained at two sites, both prior to and following the removal of a small-scale hydropower dam in Central Jutland, Denmark. We demonstrate that the dam removal has led to a dramatic increase in trout density, especially in young of the year. Surprisingly, we found that this increase was not just upstream of the barrier, where the ponded zone previously was, but also downstream of the barrier, despite little changes in habitat in that area. These findings suggest that barrier removal may be the soundest conservation option to reinstate fish population productivity.
PubMed ID
28923580 View in PubMed
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Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113760
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 4;110(23):9320-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-4-2013
Author
Robin Bronen
F Stuart Chapin
Author Affiliation
Resilience and Adaptation Program, Alaska Institute for Justice, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. rbronen@yahoo.com
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 4;110(23):9320-5
Date
Jun-4-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Consumer Participation
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Policy
Humans
Residence Characteristics
Abstract
This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions. Based on a comparative analysis of three Alaskan communities, Kivalina, Newtok, and Shishmaref, which have chosen to relocate, we examine the institutional constraints to relocation in the United States. We identify policy changes and components of a toolkit that can facilitate community-based adaptation when environmental events threaten people's lives and protection in place is not possible. Policy changes include amendment of the Stafford Act to include gradual geophysical processes, such as erosion, in the statutory definition of disaster and the creation of an adaptive governance framework to allow communities a continuum of responses from protection in place to community relocation. Key components of the toolkit are local leadership and integration of social and ecological well-being into adaptation planning.
Notes
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 May;1196:1-35420593524
Cites: Environ Manage. 2008 Apr;41(4):487-50018228089
PubMed ID
23690592 View in PubMed
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An adaptive-management framework for optimal control of hiking near golden eagle nests in Denali National Park.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101839
Source
Conserv Biol. 2011 Apr;25(2):316-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Julien Martin
Paul L Fackler
James D Nichols
Michael C Runge
Carol L McIntyre
Bruce L Lubow
Maggie C McCluskie
Joel A Schmutz
Author Affiliation
Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0485, USA. julienm@ufl.edu
Source
Conserv Biol. 2011 Apr;25(2):316-23
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Decision Making
Eagles
Endangered Species
Models, Theoretical
Recreation
Risk assessment
Uncertainty
Abstract
Unintended effects of recreational activities in protected areas are of growing concern. We used an adaptive-management framework to develop guidelines for optimally managing hiking activities to maintain desired levels of territory occupancy and reproductive success of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Denali National Park (Alaska, U.S.A.). The management decision was to restrict human access (hikers) to particular nesting territories to reduce disturbance. The management objective was to minimize restrictions on hikers while maintaining reproductive performance of eagles above some specified level. We based our decision analysis on predictive models of site occupancy of eagles developed using a combination of expert opinion and data collected from 93 eagle territories over 20 years. The best predictive model showed that restricting human access to eagle territories had little effect on occupancy dynamics. However, when considering important sources of uncertainty in the models, including environmental stochasticity, imperfect detection of hares on which eagles prey, and model uncertainty, restricting access of territories to hikers improved eagle reproduction substantially. An adaptive management framework such as ours may help reduce uncertainty of the effects of hiking activities on Golden Eagles.
PubMed ID
21342265 View in PubMed
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An inexact two-stage mixed integer linear programming method for solid waste management in the City of Regina.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169398
Source
J Environ Manage. 2006 Nov;81(3):188-209
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Y P Li
G H Huang
Author Affiliation
Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada.
Source
J Environ Manage. 2006 Nov;81(3):188-209
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cities
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Guideline Adherence
Humans
Refuse Disposal - standards
Waste Disposal, Fluid - methods
Waste Management - methods - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
In this study, an interval-parameter two-stage mixed integer linear programming (ITMILP) model is developed for supporting long-term planning of waste management activities in the City of Regina. In the ITMILP, both two-stage stochastic programming and interval linear programming are introduced into a general mixed integer linear programming framework. Uncertainties expressed as not only probability density functions but also discrete intervals can be reflected. The model can help tackle the dynamic, interactive and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system in the City, and can address issues concerning plans for cost-effective waste diversion and landfill prolongation. Three scenarios are considered based on different waste management policies. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been generated. They are valuable for supporting the adjustment or justification of the existing waste flow allocation patterns, the long-term capacity planning of the City's waste management system, and the formulation of local policies and regulations regarding waste generation and management.
PubMed ID
16678336 View in PubMed
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An inventory of collaborative arrangements between Aboriginal peoples and the Canadian forest sector: linking policies to diversification in forms of engagement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115901
Source
J Environ Manage. 2013 Apr 15;119:47-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2013
Author
Jean-François Fortier
Stephen Wyatt
David C Natcher
Margaret A Peggy Smith
Martin Hébert
Author Affiliation
Université Laval, Department of Sociology, 1030 Avenue des Sciences-Humaines, Local 3469, Québec, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada. jean-francois.fortier.1@ulaval.ca
Source
J Environ Manage. 2013 Apr 15;119:47-55
Date
Apr-15-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Consumer Participation
Cooperative Behavior
Decision Support Techniques
Environmental Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Forestry - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Abstract
This paper examines collaborative arrangements between Aboriginal peoples and the forest sector across Canada. Using a broad definition of collaboration, we identified 1378 arrangements in 474 Aboriginal communities in all Canadian provinces and territories, except Nunavut. We categorize these collaborative arrangements into five broad types: treaties and other formal agreements; planning and management activities; influence on decision-making; forest tenures; and economic roles and partnerships. Consistent data was available for only the first three types, which showed that close to 60% of Aboriginal communities use each approach. However, this masks significant differences between provinces. For example, economic roles and partnerships are in place in all New Brunswick communities and 74% of communities in British Columbia, but only 12% of Manitoban communities. The proportion of communities that have been involved in participatory processes in forest decision-making (such as advisory committees and consultation processes) is particularly high in Quebec with 88% of communities, but only 32% of communities hold forest tenures. We also find that three-quarters of all communities choose to engage in two or more approaches, despite the demands that this can place upon the time and energy of community members. We finally consider how policy environments in different jurisdictions affect the frequency of certain types of collaboration. This empirical study, and the typology that it demonstrates, can inform policy development for Aboriginal involvement in Canadian forestry and help guide future research into broader issues of collaborative governance of natural resources.
PubMed ID
23454413 View in PubMed
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[A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273979
Source
Zh Obshch Biol. 2016 Mar-Apr;77(2):135-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
A A Shulakov
A V Egorov
V G Onipchenko
Source
Zh Obshch Biol. 2016 Mar-Apr;77(2):135-44
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altitude
Biodiversity
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Phylogeny
Plants - classification
Russia
Abstract
Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that develop under conditions of winter snow accumulation were more,even at the both.scale, i.e., contained more diverse and distantly related plant species compared with random samples. (Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae) aquatic communities in cold (Montio-Cardaminetea), sedge meadows (Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii), and communities, in which shrubs and predominated (juniper and rhododendron elfin woods, class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea), have been studied only at the larger scale and showed significant evenness of species composition, i.e., were phylogenetically more diverse compared with random samples.
PubMed ID
27266018 View in PubMed
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Applying a framework for landscape planning under climate change for the conservation of biodiversity in the Finnish boreal forest.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267267
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Feb;21(2):637-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Adriano Mazziotta
Maria Triviño
Olli-Pekka Tikkanen
Jari Kouki
Harri Strandman
Mikko Mönkkönen
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Feb;21(2):637-51
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Finland
Models, Biological
Taiga
Trees - physiology
Abstract
Conservation strategies are often established without consideration of the impact of climate change. However, this impact is expected to threaten species and ecosystem persistence and to have dramatic effects towards the end of the 21st century. Landscape suitability for species under climate change is determined by several interacting factors including dispersal and human land use. Designing effective conservation strategies at regional scales to improve landscape suitability requires measuring the vulnerabilities of specific regions to climate change and determining their conservation capacities. Although methods for defining vulnerability categories are available, methods for doing this in a systematic, cost-effective way have not been identified. Here, we use an ecosystem model to define the potential resilience of the Finnish forest landscape by relating its current conservation capacity to its vulnerability to climate change. In applying this framework, we take into account the responses to climate change of a broad range of red-listed species with different niche requirements. This framework allowed us to identify four categories in which representation in the landscape varies among three IPCC emission scenarios (B1, low; A1B, intermediate; A2, high emissions): (i) susceptible (B1 = 24.7%, A1B = 26.4%, A2 = 26.2%), the most intact forest landscapes vulnerable to climate change, requiring management for heterogeneity and resilience; (ii) resilient (B1 = 2.2%, A1B = 0.5%, A2 = 0.6%), intact areas with low vulnerability that represent potential climate refugia and require conservation capacity maintenance; (iii) resistant (B1 = 6.7%, A1B = 0.8%, A2 = 1.1%), landscapes with low current conservation capacity and low vulnerability that are suitable for restoration projects; (iv) sensitive (B1 = 66.4%, A1B = 72.3%, A2 = 72.0%), low conservation capacity landscapes that are vulnerable and for which alternative conservation measures are required depending on the intensity of climate change. Our results indicate that the Finnish landscape is likely to be dominated by a very high proportion of sensitive and susceptible forest patches, thereby increasing uncertainty for landscape managers in the choice of conservation strategies.
Notes
Erratum In: Glob Chang Biol. 2015 Sep;21(9):319326386356
PubMed ID
25044467 View in PubMed
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Arctic climate change and its impacts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95820
Source
Ambio. 2004 Nov;33(7):1 p following 479
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2004

150 records – page 1 of 15.