The Second Canadian Consensus Conference was convened to discuss the latest developments in the management of osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to make evidence-based recommendations, specifically regarding the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for these indications in primary care practice. The recent availability of cyclo-oxygenase-2-specific inhibitors has raised questions as to their role in the pharmacological management of OA and RA, particularly in relation to conventional treatments such as acetaminophen and nonspecific NSAIDs (with or without misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors). The recommendations in this document, which were arrived at through critical review of data from published randomized, clinical trials, deal with treatments of choice, information to discuss with patients, use of NSAIDs in patients at risk for serious upper gastrointestinal complications, renal or hepatic impairment or congestive heart failure, appropriate follow-up, and the use of NSAIDs with anti- hypertensives, warfarin, low dose acetylsalicylic acid and other medications. The goal of these recommendations is to improve patient outcomes in the primary care setting by maximizing treatment efficacy and minimizing rates of adverse events.
With advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery, the population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased. In the current era, there are more adults with CHD than children. This population has many unique issues and needs. They have distinctive forms of heart failure and their cardiac disease can be associated with pulmonary hypertension, thromboemboli, complex arrhythmias and sudden death. Medical aspects that need to be considered relate to the long-term and multisystemic effects of single ventricle physiology, cyanosis, systemic right ventricles, complex intracardiac baffles and failing subpulmonary right ventricles. Since the 2001 Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference report on the management of adults with CHD, there have been significant advances in the field of adult CHD. Therefore, new clinical guidelines have been written by Canadian adult CHD physicians in collaboration with an international panel of experts in the field. Part III of the guidelines includes recommendations for the care of patients with complete transposition of the great arteries, congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, Fontan operations and single ventricles, Eisenmenger's syndrome, and cyanotic heart disease. Topics addressed include genetics, clinical outcomes, recommended diagnostic workup, surgical and interventional options, treatment of arrhythmias, assessment of pregnancy risk and follow-up requirements. The complete document consists of four manuscripts, which are published online in the present issue of The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. The complete document and references can also be found at www.ccs.ca or www.cachnet.org.
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Canadian Cardiovascular Society Consensus Conference guidelines on heart failure, update 2009: diagnosis and management of right-sided heart failure, myocarditis, device therapy and recent important clinical trials.
The Canadian Cardiovascular Society published a comprehensive set of recommendations on the diagnosis and management of heart failure in January 2006. Based on feedback obtained through a national program of heart failure workshops and through active solicitation of stakeholders, several topics were identified because of their importance to the practicing clinician. Topics chosen for the present update include best practices for the diagnosis and management of right-sided heart failure, myocarditis and device therapy, and a review of recent important or landmark clinical trials. These recommendations were developed using the structured approach for the review and assessment of evidence adopted and previously described by the Society. The present update has been written from a clinical perspective to provide a user-friendly and practical approach. Specific clinical questions that are addressed include: What is right-sided heart failure and how should one approach the diagnostic work-up? What other clinical entities may masquerade as this nebulous condition and how can we tell them apart? When should we be concerned about the presence of myocarditis and how quickly should patients with this condition be referred to an experienced centre? Among the myriad of recently published landmark clinical trials, which ones will impact our standards of clinical care? The goals are to aid physicians and other health care providers to optimally treat heart failure patients, resulting in a measurable impact on patient health and clinical outcomes in Canada.
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