Dental personnel manually handle products that contain monomers. Several studies have documented adverse health effects after exposure to such products. Gloves made of vinyl or latex are easily penetrated by monomers. Ordinary glasses, or visors, do not protect against vapour from polymer products. Dental face masks filter out about 40% of respirable particles. To survey the prevalence of asthma, atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, hay fever/rhinitis, and hand eczema among dental personnel, a questionnaire was distributed to all dental teams in Northern Sweden. Referents were researchers, teachers, and secretaries from the same geographical area. The response rate was 76% for dental teams, and 66% for referents. The results show a significantly higher prevalence of conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis among dentists, both male and female. Hypersensitivity to dental materials was reported by significantly more dental personnel than by referents.
The occurrence of allergic diseases in children was studied on the basis of a questionnaire sent to the parents of 20,000 school children, 7, 10 and 14 years of age, in 3 parts of Sweden with different climatic conditions. The prevalence of asthma was 2.4%, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis 7.4%, eczema 7.8% and total allergic diseases 16.9%. The prevalence of all diseases was significantly higher in the northern part of the country than in the southern parts. This geographic variation was not related to heredity, infant feeding pattern or known exposure variables other than the cold and dry climate. Parental history of allergic diseases increased the incidence in the offspring 2-9 times, with a pattern of symptom specificity and a cumulative effect of double parental history. Breast-feeding postponed the onset of allergic disease only in children with double parental history.
During a 10-year period 1,050 medical students were questioned regarding allergy and allergy-like symptoms and 612 of them underwent skin prick tests with dog, cat, timothy and birch allergens. Symptoms of eczema, asthma or non-infectious rhinitis, past or current, or current reactions to pollen, furred animals, dust, mould or food were reported by 46% of the students. Three per cent reported present eczema of the flexure type and a further 8% reported past symptoms of the same kind. Current contact e zema was reported by 7% and past contact eczema by a further 3%. Daily treatment with ointments was reported by 52% of the students with current flexure eczema and by 17% with current contact eczema. Current asthma was reported by 5% and past asthma by a further 3%. Of those with current asthma, 88% were allergic to pollens and/or furred animals and 57% used anti-asthmatic drugs for at least 2 weeks/year. Current allergic symptoms in the nose and/or eyes were reported by 29% and a further 2% reported past symptoms. Of those with current symptoms 64% were allergic to pollens and/or furred animals, as judged by the history and skin tests. Almost 60% of the students with pollen allergy used anti-allergic drugs for at least 2 weeks/year. Allergy to pollens was reported by 17%, to animals by 12%, to house dust by 10%, to moulds by 2% and to foods by 15%. Allergy reported and confirmed by a prick test was found in 8% against birch, 6% against timothy, 10% against cat and 5% against dog.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The authors studied the frequency of the purulent-septic diseases in puerperants and neonates and the percentage among them of affections of staphylococcus etiology, their seasonal incidence and nidality. The phage-type reference of the strains of staphylococci circulating at the maternity home, and their connection with the staphylococcus carrier state among the personnel and the extent of spread of the purulent-septic diseases was determined. There was revealed an interrelationship between the incidence of recording of the purulent-septic diseases at the maternity home and the level of staphylococcus carrier state among the medical personnel. The sum total positive culture percentage in serous mastitis, endometritis and in case of suture disjunction due to purulent complications was 63.5, and in case of purulent-septic diseases of neonates -- 55--65. Strains belonging to the "epidemic" phage types are widespread at the maternity homes.
We aimed to assess the prevalence of allergic sensitization and multiple sensitization, risk factors, and the clinical impact of being sensitized in the adult population of Helsinki, Finland.
As a part of the FinEsS study, a population-based random sample of 498 adults aged 26-60 years were tested for 15 common aeroallergens with skin prick tests (SPTs) and interviewed on respiratory symptoms and diseases, including respiratory irritants and childhood environment.
The prevalence of at least one positive prick test was 46.9%. A large difference by age was found: 56.8% were sensitized among those aged 26-39 years, 49.2% in the age group 40-49 years, and 35.6% in the age group 50-60 years (P
The effect of fungal spores and pollen grains on morbidity from childhood conjunctivitis and rhinitis is mostly unknown. We therefore studied the association between daily concentrations of these airborne allergens and daily emergency visits to a children hospital between 1993 and 1997. An increase of 551 basidiomycetes spores per m(3), or of 72 ragweed grains per m(3), was associated with an increase of about 10% in visits for conjunctivitis and rhinitis (p
The occurrence of contagious diseases among children attending day care centers (DCCs) is high. The possibility of reducing absences due to infections with an infection prevention program was investigated.
The intervention study was conducted as an open, controlled cluster study. It included 60 municipal DCCs in one of the seven districts of the City of Helsinki; 228 DCCs in the other six districts served as controls. The main indicator was the occurrence of absences due to upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, eye infection and diarrhea per child-month.
The intervention reduced the absences due to infections by 26% among under 3-year olds, but not among older children. The same phenomenon was observed when similar paired random control DCCs were compared with the intervention DCCs.
Effective prevention of absences due to infections is possible among under 3-year olds by implementing a simple and inexpensive infection control program.
To study the epidemiology and risk factors of early- and late-onset postoperative endophthalmitis (PE) and severe blebitis following trabeculectomy.
Retrospective, single-centre, observational study with a case-control design in part. Patients sustaining PE and severe blebitis following trabeculectomy or a combined trabeculectomy with a cataract extraction procedure performed from 1990 through 2008 and diagnosed from 1990 through 2012 were recorded at St Erik Eye Hospital. Incidence data were calculated with help from the hospital records. Notes data of cases and of six randomly selected but procedure matched control patients for each case were compared.
The joint rate of infection was 0.46% or 34 incidents in 7402 procedures. The frequency of early (occurring