This paper reports the frequency of use of protection and rates of birth control pill/condom use by age and gender among a large, sexually active group of Ontario adolescents who were followed from 12 to 17 years of age. The sample consisted of the 759 males and 690 females who reported engaging in sexual intercourse during the McMaster Teen Project. Significantly more females aged 15-17 years reported always using a method of protection, and using the birth control pill. Condom use was more frequent among males at all ages, but reached statistical significance at ages 12, 13 and 17 years. Although the numbers reporting no use of protection decreased with age, by 17 years 36% of males and 33% of females continued to report no use of protection. Large numbers of sexually active Ontario adolescents continue to be vulnerable to pregnancy, STDs and AIDS.
This study examines leading explanations for unsafe sex in light of in-depth interviews with 102 high-risk gay and bisexual men in Toronto to see how well they engage with the social circumstances and reasoning processes of men in their sexual relationships. We argue that there is an inadequate fit between some of the leading explanations and the discursive accounts provided by high risk men themselves. Their accounts focus on unsafe sex occurring as a resolution to condom and erectile difficulties, through momentary lapses and trade offs, out of personal turmoil and depression, and as a byproduct of strategies of disclosure and intuiting safety. This study examines, in particular the circumstances and rationales associated with men who identify their practices as "barebacking." We conclude with recommendations for communicating prevention messages to those most at risk based on the self-understandings of gay and bisexual men who most frequently practice unprotected sex.
Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that (a) sampled people living in Russia, (b) used a behavioral intervention, and (c) assessed both alcohol and sexual risk behavior. These searches yielded 584 studies, of these, two were included. Compared with controls, intervention participants reported increasing their condom use (ds ranged from 0.12 to 0.85). Within-group improvements in sexual behaviors were found for both groups (ds ranged from 0.19 to 1.94); participants reported fewer sexual partners, more condom use, and reduced alcohol or drug use before sex. These findings support the need and potential benefits for alcohol and HIV interventions among Russians, and suggest directions for public policy.
Migration of the native populations from reservations to the urban areas has resulted in mixed ethnicities of American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN) children. Minority youth require special attention and services in urban schools as they disproportionately experience poverty, low educational attainment, unemployment, and single-parent status.
We used 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data to examine alcohol/drug use patterns and their association with sexual risk taking among AIAN only (single-racial) and biracial youth in combination with White, African American, or Hispanic ethnicities (N = 1178).
Overall, one half of the students were sexually active, with significantly higher rates among males; AIAN-Black students initiated sex earlier than the other groups. Condom nonuse is higher among AIAN-Whites (>50%) compared to one third of AIAN-Hispanics and one fourth of AIAN-Blacks. Nearly 10% of all students, except AIAN-Blacks, reported lifetime use of heroin/meth. Sexual behavior was significantly associated with episodic drinking. Students with Hispanic background have twice the odds of being sexually active compared to AIANs.
Our findings underscore growing health care needs and targeted prevention initiatives for mixed racial underserved native youth. Urban school settings have potential to deliver services and offer alcohol/drug prevention programs to address the needs of mixed racial native urban youth. Using the School Based Health Clinic model has been successful; we need to reform prevention approaches to accommodate needs of multiracial urban native youth.
The rising popularity of unprotected anal sex (bareback sex) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is perplexing healthcare providers working in sexual health clinics. Epidemiological research on the topic overlooks several socio-cultural and psychological dimensions. Our research attempts to construct an appropriate theoretical edifice by which we can understand this sexual practice. In order to achieve this objective, a qualitative design was selected and 18 semiconductive in-depth interviews were carried out with barebackers from five European and North American cities. We then analyzed the data using two theoretical approaches that were sensitive to the issues of desire, transgression and pleasure. These theories are those of the late French psychoanalyst, Jacques Lacan, and those of poststructural thinkers, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. These theoretical frameworks helped shed light on the significance of bareback sex, and can potentially influence healthcare providers in gaining a better understanding not only of their clients, but also of their own role in the circuitry of desire at work within bareback. We found that while the exchange of semen constitutes a dangerous and irrational practice to healthcare professionals, it is nevertheless a significant variable in the sexual lives of barebackers that needs to be taken into consideration in the provision of healthcare services.
Greenland is a considered high risk area for a self-sustained heterosexual HIV-epidemic due to rather relaxed sexual norms in larger segments of the population and a high incidence of sexual transmitted diseases. However, the prevalence of HIV-positives is still low. As part of a monitoring programme longitudinal studies of young peoples' knowledge and sexual behaviour has been established. This paper presents results from the second survey among all students in vocational training and all 10th grade students in the public schools. Previous studies were performed in 1988 and 1989. The present study which took place in April 1991 involved a total of 1201 students, or about 85% of all students in the target groups (95% among students present on the day of surveying). Data collection was based upon standardized self-administered questionnaires. The study showed better knowledge than previously but no marked change in sexual habits. The age of sexual début even appeared to be decreasing. More than half reported a sexual début before the age of 15. More than 20% reported 10 sexual partners or more within the last year. HIV has still not reached the young population in Greenland but when it happens the present sexual behaviour carries a high risk of a self-sustained epidemic.
To assess changes in sexual behavior, sexual attitudes, and sexual risk related to HIV, we conducted mailed questionnaire surveys in random samples of the Swedish general population in 1989, 1994, 1997, 2000, and 2003 (total N = 13,762). Each sample consisted of 4,000-6,000 subjects aged 16-44 years, stratified by age: 16-17, 18-19, 20-24, 25-34, and 35-44 years. The overall participation rate was 63.8% (for men, 55.9%; for women, 71.9%). The prevalence of three or more sexual partners and casual sexual contacts without the use of a condom was comparatively high for men, for persons aged 16-24 years, single persons with and without a regular partner, and persons living in towns and urban areas. The prevalence of multiple sexual partners and casual sexual contacts increased significantly over time. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of participants who agreed with the statement "Sexual intercourse should only take place in a stable relationship." Personal risk assessments related to HIV did not change significantly over time. The study shows that risky sexual behavior related to HIV/AIDS increased in the Swedish population between 1989 and 2003, and that attitudes concerning casual sexual relations became more permissive.
To determine the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviours and the influence of substance use and unplanned sexual intercourse on multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and reasons for not always using condoms among adolescent students.
A standardized self-reported anonymous questionnaire administered to a representative sample of students.
The Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island in 1998.
9997 students in grades 9, 10 and 12 in the public school system.
Items on sexual intercourse, unplanned sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, alcohol use, episodes of binge drinking and drunkenness, cigarette smoking and cannabis use.
About 37.5% of males and 39.7% of females reported having engaged in sexual intercourse in the 12 months prior to the survey. Of those, 68.0% of males and 61.5% of females reported having engaged in unplanned sexual intercourse, 40.9% of males and 32.1% of females reported having more than one sexual partner, and 49.9% of males and 64.1% of females reported inconsistent condom use. Unplanned sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol or other drug was found to be an independent risk factor for multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use.
The demonstration of an association between substance use, unplanned sexual intercourse and other sexual behaviours lends support to a harm minimization approach, including the provision of non-judgemental information and interventions addressing unplanned sexual intercourse under the influence of a substance.
Despite relatively easy access to contraceptives, a liberal attitude to pregnancies out of wedlock and a widespread family planning education in schools, too a high number of adolescent women in Oslo, the capital of Norway, become pregnant and resort to abortions. The aim of this study was to identify some new entry points to sexuality, contraceptive, abortion and post-abortion counselling. Using a qualitative approach, we interviewed 102 young women in Oslo who were seeking either an abortion or contraceptives. The study demonstrated that contraceptive awareness is good, but that there are different levels of consistency in contraceptive use among women, and that even women with few partners and fairly good contraceptive compliance sometimes experience unplanned pregnancy. The study reviews some issues of importance where communication with young women could be improved. These issues include better formal information about OCs, increased information on emergency contraception, better condom promotion, and an attempt to involve better informed adults, including paramedical professional counselling. In addition, contraceptive prescriptions should accord to the type of behaviour and the relationships the young women have.
During 1986 and 1991, two large questionnaire studies were carried out concerning the attitudes and knowledge about contraceptives, the start of sexual activity, and the avoidance of unwanted pregnancy among 500 secondary school students in Ostersund and the county of Jamtland, Sweden. Among those who had had their first intercourse, the average age of first intercourse increased from 15 years and 4 months to 16 years and 2 months for girls. For boys the age of first intercourse was 16 years and 3 months in 1986 vs. 17 years in 1991. In Ostersund itself this age was 18 years for boys, while for those growing up in the countryside outside of Ostersund, this age stayed the same at 16 years. In 1991, girls tended to be less protected during first intercourse: only 54% used the condom or oral contraceptives (OCs) vs. 64% in 1986. In contrast, 75% of boys used either the condom or their partner relied on OCs during the first intercourse. The opposition to OCs was indicated by the fact that earlier 85% of those in longer relationships ( 6 months) used OCs compared with only 70% in 1991. A large percentage of both girls and boys also admitted in 1991 that they had had intercourse without any protection compared with 1986. Neither in 1986 nor in 1991 did any teenage girls use IUDs. When asked about their reaction to an unplanned pregnancy, in 1991, 1 out of 4 girls thought that they would give birth vs. 1 out of 7 in 1986. The reasons for not using OCs included fear from side effects, which increased from 1 out of 4 in 1986 to 1 out of 3 in 1991. There was also a promising trend of a decreasing rate of chlamydia infections both in the county of Jamtland and in the country in general, presumably owing to the increased use of condoms. These findings induced the county of Jamtland in April 1992 to subsidize OCs for women under the age of 25 years.