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The 2002 Canadian Contraception Study: part 1.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179693
Source
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Jun;26(6):580-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2004
Author
William Fisher
Richard Boroditsky
Brian Morris
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London ON.
Source
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004 Jun;26(6):580-90
Date
Jun-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Canada
Condoms
Contraception Behavior - statistics & numerical data - trends
Contraceptive Agents, Female - administration & dosage
Contraceptive Agents, Male - administration & dosage
Contraceptives, Oral - administration & dosage
Data Collection
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Marital status
Sterilization, Reproductive - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Abstract
To investigate the contraception and sexual health-related awareness, attitudes, and practices of a representative sample of Canadian women of childbearing age.
A self-report survey was mailed to a national sample of 3345 women, aged 15 to 44 years, who were members of a pre-recruited market research panel. Survey questions and methodology were similar to 3 previous Canadian Contraception Studies, allowing for description of current patterns of behaviours and beliefs and comparison of trends over time.
Of 3345 women contacted, 1582 returned completed surveys, for a response rate of 47.3%. Responses were weighted to represent Canadian women by region, age, and marital status on the basis of current census data. Eighty-six percent of women sampled had ever had sexual intercourse and 78% were currently sexually active. Women's familiarity with oral contraceptives and condoms as methods of contraception was high (96% and 93%, respectively), but familiarity with other methods was much lower (sterilization, 62%; withdrawal, 59%; the morning-after pill, 57%; intrauterine devices, 50%; depot [injectable] medroxyprogesterone acetate, 38%). A very favourable opinion was held by 63% of respondents concerning oral contraceptives, by 38% concerning condoms, and by 39% and 28% concerning male and female sterilization, respectively. Among respondents who have ever had sexual intercourse, the most frequently used current methods were oral contraceptives (32%), condoms (21%), male sterilization (15%), female sterilization (8%), and withdrawal (6%). Nine percent of these respondents reported using no method of contraception at all. The currently reported rate of female sterilization is the lowest ever recorded in Canada. Survey results show that adherence to contraceptive methods is a challenge for many women and their partners, and that risk of sexually transmitted disease is an ongoing concern.
This study provides a wide-ranging examination of contraception awareness, beliefs, and use among Canadian women that may provide guidance for clinical and public health practice. Part 1 of this report describes the methodology of the 2002 Canadian Contraception Study and the overall results of this study; Part 2 considers results pertaining specifically to adolescent women and women in their later reproductive years, reports on indicators of women's sexual function and reproductive health history, describes approaches to addressing challenges in contraception counselling, and presents data concerning trends in Canadian women's awareness and use of contraception over the past 2 decades.
PubMed ID
15193204 View in PubMed
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Adolescent sexual behaviour: results from an Ontario sample. Part II: Adolescent use of protection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205715
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 Mar-Apr;89(2):94-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
B H Thomas
A. DiCenso
L. Griffith
Author Affiliation
School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON. thomash@fhs.csu.mcmaster.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 Mar-Apr;89(2):94-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Condoms - utilization
Contraception - methods - utilization
Female
Humans
Male
Ontario
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Sexual Behavior
Abstract
This paper reports the frequency of use of protection and rates of birth control pill/condom use by age and gender among a large, sexually active group of Ontario adolescents who were followed from 12 to 17 years of age. The sample consisted of the 759 males and 690 females who reported engaging in sexual intercourse during the McMaster Teen Project. Significantly more females aged 15-17 years reported always using a method of protection, and using the birth control pill. Condom use was more frequent among males at all ages, but reached statistical significance at ages 12, 13 and 17 years. Although the numbers reporting no use of protection decreased with age, by 17 years 36% of males and 33% of females continued to report no use of protection. Large numbers of sexually active Ontario adolescents continue to be vulnerable to pregnancy, STDs and AIDS.
PubMed ID
9583248 View in PubMed
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Adolescent sexuality in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214769
Source
AIDS. 1995 Jul;9 Suppl 1:S53-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1995
Author
I. Lunin
T L Hall
J S Mandel
J. Kay
N. Hearst
Author Affiliation
Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS), University of California, San Francisco 94105, USA.
Source
AIDS. 1995 Jul;9 Suppl 1:S53-60
Date
Jul-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - prevention & control - transmission
Adolescent
Adult
Condoms
Cross-Sectional Studies
Developing Countries
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Russia
Sex Education
Sexual Behavior
Urban Population
Abstract
To describe adolescent knowledge, attitudes and behavior relevant to sexuality and the prevention of AIDS in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed, taking a random sample of 10th grade students at 14 Saint Petersburg grade schools, which were stratified by socio-economic district. A total of 185 female and 185 male students completed a self-administered 46-item questionnaire, with a response rate of 94%.
From the questionnaires, 20% of females and 31% of males reported having had sexual intercourse and 25% of females and 12% of males reported being sexually abused. These adolescents displayed much misinformation about sexual matters and AIDS prevention. Only 25% of the females and 34% of the males believed that condoms should be used just once, and 38% of each sex believed that if washed, they could be used multiple times. Many respondents, especially males, rated their knowledge about sexual matters as high or adequate. Support for sex education was strong, especially among females, and respondents generally saw sex education as improving sexual pleasure. Most information sources about sexual activity were either not considered very credible, or not adequately accessible.
Substantial reported rates of sexual abuse, sexual experience and much misinformation and unwarranted attitudes toward condoms, safer sexual practices and HIV/AIDS suggest the need for vigorous sex education programs for Russian youth. The early and sustained education of girls is especially important. Sex education should be introduced at an early age so that children can be taught how to reduce the risks of sexual abuse, HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, and to improve their sexual experiences as responsible adults.
PubMed ID
8562001 View in PubMed
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[Adolescents' view on the use of condoms]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63446
Source
Lakartidningen. 2003 Oct 30;100(44):3510-2, 3515-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-30-2003
Author
Elisabeth Darj
Karin Bondestam
Author Affiliation
Kvinnokliniken, Akademiska sjukhuset, institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Uppsala universitet. elisabeth.darj@kbh.uu.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 2003 Oct 30;100(44):3510-2, 3515-6
Date
Oct-30-2003
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Condoms
Contraception Behavior - psychology
English Abstract
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy in Adolescence - prevention & control
Questionnaires
Safe Sex
Sexual Behavior - psychology
Sexually Transmitted Diseases - prevention & control
Sweden
Abstract
Seven out of ten of the adolescents included in the study had experienced unsafe sex with a new partner. Afterwards, 48% worried about STD and 31% worried about pregnancy. Teenagers calculate the risk of contracting STD from the looks and the reputation of a new partner. Young women and men agree, that both share responsibility for the use of condoms, but more often the young women initiate the use of condoms. Many participants found it more embarrassing to buy condoms than to use them. The participants hoped for improved education in schools and less expensive condoms. The adolescents possessed good knowledge concerning how to protect themselves, but changes in attitudes are needed. School and youth clinics play important roles in this process.
PubMed ID
14651010 View in PubMed
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AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in Russia: results of a population-based, random-digit telephone survey in St Petersburg.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195991
Source
Int J STD AIDS. 2001 Jan;12(1):50-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2001
Author
Y A Amirkhanian
J A Kelly
D D Issayev
Author Affiliation
St Petersburg State University, Russia. yuri@mcw.edu
Source
Int J STD AIDS. 2001 Jan;12(1):50-7
Date
Jan-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - psychology
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Attitude to Health
Condoms
Female
HIV Infections - epidemiology - psychology
Health Surveys
Humans
Knowledge
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Sexual Behavior
Abstract
In this paper, we report on the results of what we believe to be the first population-based, random-digit telephone AIDS survey conducted in Russia. Recent and rapidly increasing STD and HIV rates show the extremely urgent need for HIV prevention programmes in Russia. HIV sexual risk behaviour, knowledge, attitudes, and personal concern characteristics were assessed in a sample of men and women aged 15-55 years living in 435 St Petersburg households. Many factors related to high HIV risk were found in this study. Only 6% of respondents reported consistent condom use, and 78% reported that they never or seldom used condoms. At the same time, over 13% had 3 and more sexual partners during the last year and 12% had 10 and more lifetime partners. Occasional or frequent anal sex was reported by 13% of those surveyed. Two-thirds of respondents acknowledged personal risk for getting HIV but fewer than 25% indicated that they had taken steps to reduce the risks. One-third of respondents believed that condoms are not an effective protection against HIV. Forty-eight per cent of respondents believed that HIV could be transmitted through kissing, 56% through mosquito bites, and 29.2% through sharing cigarettes. HIV/AIDS prevention efforts for the general public and also targeted campaigns directed toward high-risk communities must be quickly undertaken in Russia.
PubMed ID
11177483 View in PubMed
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AIDS optimism, condom fatigue, or self-esteem? Explaining unsafe sex among gay and bisexual men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173573
Source
J Sex Res. 2005 Aug;42(3):238-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2005
Author
Barry D Adam
Winston Husbands
James Murray
John Maxwell
Author Affiliation
University of Windsor, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. adam@uwindsor.ca
Source
J Sex Res. 2005 Aug;42(3):238-48
Date
Aug-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - prevention & control - psychology - transmission
Adult
Bisexuality - psychology
Condoms - utilization
Depression - psychology
Erectile Dysfunction - psychology
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Surveys
Homosexuality, Male - psychology
Humans
Internal-External Control
Interview, Psychological
Intuition
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Self Concept
Sexual Partners - psychology
Truth Disclosure
Unsafe Sex - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This study examines leading explanations for unsafe sex in light of in-depth interviews with 102 high-risk gay and bisexual men in Toronto to see how well they engage with the social circumstances and reasoning processes of men in their sexual relationships. We argue that there is an inadequate fit between some of the leading explanations and the discursive accounts provided by high risk men themselves. Their accounts focus on unsafe sex occurring as a resolution to condom and erectile difficulties, through momentary lapses and trade offs, out of personal turmoil and depression, and as a byproduct of strategies of disclosure and intuiting safety. This study examines, in particular the circumstances and rationales associated with men who identify their practices as "barebacking." We conclude with recommendations for communicating prevention messages to those most at risk based on the self-understandings of gay and bisexual men who most frequently practice unprotected sex.
PubMed ID
19817037 View in PubMed
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AIDS risk reduction strategies among United States and Swedish heterosexual university students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204978
Source
Arch Sex Behav. 1998 Aug;27(4):385-401
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
M S Weinberg
I L Lottes
D. Aveline
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, Indiana University, Bloomington 47405, USA.
Source
Arch Sex Behav. 1998 Aug;27(4):385-401
Date
Aug-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - prevention & control
Adult
Attitude
Condoms - statistics & numerical data - utilization
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Female
Humans
Male
Masturbation - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Risk-Taking
Sexual Behavior - statistics & numerical data
Students
Sweden
United States
Abstract
Attitudes toward sex and condoms in the U.S. are more negative and less monolithic than in Sweden. We investigated the possible effect of this on AIDS prevention strategies by comparing women and men who were heterosexual university students in the two countries (Sweden: n = 570; U.S.: n = 407). Using self-administered questionnaires, subjects were asked about their sexual activities, safer sex practices, numbers of partners, and condom use. American students took a more multifaceted approach to safer sex--combining changes in sexual activities, reductions in casual sex, and increased condom use with both steady and nonsteady partners. Swedish students took a more singular approach--consistently using condoms with nonsteady partners. It is suggested that the difference in Swedish practices results from fundamental differences in sexual attitudes between the countries.
PubMed ID
9681120 View in PubMed
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Alaska Native and rural youth views of sexual health: a focus group project on sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124563
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2012;19(1):1-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Jessica D Leston
Cornelia M Jessen
Brenna C Simons
Author Affiliation
jdleston@anthc.org
Source
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res. 2012;19(1):1-14
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alaska
Condoms
Female
Focus Groups
HIV Infections
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy, Unplanned
Qualitative Research
Rural Population
Sexually transmitted diseases
Young Adult
Abstract
The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth (both AN and non-AN) and communities regarding STDs, HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy and to determine the best methods to educate and facilitate behavior change in AN youth regarding these issues.
A convenience sample of AN and rural youth (n = 105) from 5 communities in Alaska, ages 15-24 years, participated in 21 focus groups. Focus group participants were divided by sex and age. We assessed themes related to knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about STDs, HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy, as well as perceptions of how youth prefer to learn about sexual health issues.
The major themes identified were: (1) sexual health is not viewed only in relation to a physical act; (2) there is a basic understanding of sexual health, but youth have a lot of unanswered questions pertaining to STDs and HIV/AIDS; (3) sexual health messages should be delivered via the Internet and school; (4) youth want to hear messages promoting STD/HIV testing and condom use; (5) easier access to condoms is needed; (6) alcohol and drug use affect sexual behavior and risk taking; and (7) issues of confidentiality and embarrassment affect health care-seeking behaviors for sexual health issues.
One of the fundamental principles of public health practice is community participation, which asserts that success in achieving change is enhanced by the active participation of the intended audience in defining their own high-priority solutions. Our findings-driven by youth themselves-are critical in designing and implementing future sexual health interventions and promoting greater community involvement and acceptance.
PubMed ID
22569722 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions among people living in Russia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263496
Source
AIDS Behav. 2014 Oct;18(10):1835-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Chiao-Wen Lan
Lori A J Scott-Sheldon
Kate B Carey
Blair T Johnson
Michael P Carey
Source
AIDS Behav. 2014 Oct;18(10):1835-46
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Condoms - utilization
European Continental Ancestry Group
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Prostitution - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk Reduction Behavior
Risk-Taking
Russia - epidemiology
Sexual Behavior - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Abstract
Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that (a) sampled people living in Russia, (b) used a behavioral intervention, and (c) assessed both alcohol and sexual risk behavior. These searches yielded 584 studies, of these, two were included. Compared with controls, intervention participants reported increasing their condom use (ds ranged from 0.12 to 0.85). Within-group improvements in sexual behaviors were found for both groups (ds ranged from 0.19 to 1.94); participants reported fewer sexual partners, more condom use, and reduced alcohol or drug use before sex. These findings support the need and potential benefits for alcohol and HIV interventions among Russians, and suggest directions for public policy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24104461 View in PubMed
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252 records – page 1 of 26.