There have been 80 cases of carcinoma in exstrophied bladders described previously. We describe another such case in which the specimen was investigated by mucin histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. The epithelial lining of the bladder was colonic with colon-specific mucin histochemistry and contents of carcinoembryonic antigen. In many foci there were dysplasia of the colonic epithelium and multiple colonic exophytic adenocarcinomas.
Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and essential hypertension (EH) are two of several manifestations of the insulin resistance syndrome. Although subjects with NIDDM and subjects with EH share a common defect in carbohydrate metabolism, only diabetics are advised to avoid sugar. We tested the theory that an adverse effect of diuretics treatment in men with EH with respect to risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) would depend on the intake of dietary sugar using sugar in hot beverages as a marker. The cohort consisted of 2,899 men from the Copenhagen Male Study aged 53-74 years (mean 63) who were without overt cardiovascular disease. Potential confounders were: age, alcohol,smoking, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, cotinine, NIDDM,and social class. A total of 340 men took antihypertensives; 211 took diuretics (95% thiazides and related agents), and 129 used other antihypertensives. During 6 years, 179 men (6.2%) had a first IHD event. Among the 340 men taking antihypertensives, the incidence rate was 11%. Diuretics use was associated with a high risk of IHD in hypertensive men with a relatively high intake of dietary sugar; the cumulative incidence rate was 22%; in diuretics treated men with a low intake of sugar, the rate was 7%. After controlling for potential confounders, relative risk (95% ci.) was 3.1(1.3-7.6), p = 001. Among the 129 men who took other forms of antihypertensive drugs, the IHD incidence rate was 8%, and independent of the intake of sugar. The results indicate that the risk of IHD in hypertensives using diuretics is associated with intake of dietary sugar, which may explain at least some of the discouraging effects of antihypertensive agents on the reduction of risk of IHD.
PURPOSE: To describe a newly created all-Nordic cohort of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), entitled the Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo), which will be used to compare participants having undergone antireflux surgery with those who have not regarding risk of cancers, other diseases and mortality.
PARTICIPANTS: Included were individuals with a GORD diagnosis recorded in any of the nationwide patient registries in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) in 1964-2014 (with various start and end years in different countries). Data regarding cancer, other diseases and mortality were retrieved from the nationwide registries for cancer, patients and causes of death, respectively.
FINDINGS TO DATE: The NordASCo includes 945 153 individuals with a diagnosis of GORD. Of these, 48 433 (5.1%) have undergone primary antireflux surgery. Median age at primary antireflux surgery ranged from 47 to 52 years in the different countries. The coding practices of GORD seem to have differed between the Nordic countries.
FUTURE PLANS: The NordASCo will initially be used to analyse the risk of developing known or potential GORD-related cancers, that is, tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, pharynx and lung, and to evaluate the mortality in the short-term and long-term perspectives. Additionally, the cohort will be used to evaluate the risk of non-malignant respiratory conditions that might be caused by aspiration of gastric contents.
OBJECTIVE: Variations in the noncoding single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions 560 and 832 in the 5' promoter region of the apolipoprotein E gene define genotypes that distinguish between high and low concentrations of plasma total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. We addressed whether these genotypes improve the prediction of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in subsamples of individuals defined by traditional risk factors and the genotypes defined by the epsilon(2), epsilon(3), and epsilon(4) alleles in exon 4 of the apolipoprotein E gene. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a sample of 3686 female and 2772 male participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of IHD events, 576 individuals (257 women, 7.0% and 319 men, 11.5%) were diagnosed as having developed IHD in 6.5 years of follow-up. Using a stepwise Patient Rule-Induction Method modeling strategy that acknowledges the complex pathobiology of IHD, we identified a subsample of 764 elderly women (> or =65 years) with hypertriglyceridemia who had a history of smoking, a history of hypertension, or a history of both in which the A(560)T(832)/A(560)T(832) and A(560)T(832)/A(560)G(832) 5' 2-SNP genotypes had a higher cumulative incidence of IHD (172/1000) compared to the incidence of 70/1000 in the total sample of women. CONCLUSIONS: Our study validates that 5' apolipoprotein E genotypes improve the prediction of IHD and documents that the improvement is greatest in a subset defined by a particular combination of traditional risk factors in Copenhagen City Heart Study female participants. We discuss the use of these genotypes in medical risk assessment of IHD in the population represented by the Copenhagen City Heart Study.
RefSource: Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010 Feb 1;3(1):1-2
BACKGROUND: Denmark has a low incidence of acute hepatitis B (HBV) infections but the impact of an increasing number of immigrants with chronic HBV infection on HBV transmission is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To characterise individuals with chronic and acute HBV infection in a defined region and to examine the importance of different risk groups for the current HBV transmission. METHODS: During 2000-2001 all consecutive HBV infected individuals routinely diagnosed through the regional HBV serology laboratory in the County of Funen were classified according to ethnicity, presumed route of transmission and stage of infection based on clinical data mainly supplied by the requesting physician. HBV DNA was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Of 309 identified cases, 91 (29%) were classified as acute infection. HBV DNA sequencing was possible in 54 (59%) of these cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HBV isolated from injecting drug users (IDUs) was identical or closely related. Among acute cases acquired in Denmark 89% (74/83) were seen in IDUs (65) or in individuals presumably exposed to IDUs (nine) and phylogenetic analysis corroborated the assumption of IDU related transmission in every case with available sequence data. Among 83 ethnic Danes who acquired their HBV infection in Denmark, no new cases of transmission from immigrants were detected. CONCLUSION: Injecting drug use was the single most important factor for hepatitis B transmission in Denmark. The current Danish vaccination strategy is unable to protect IDUs from HBV infection and IDUs pose a greater risk of HBV transmission to the general population than immigrants.
OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased overall and cardiovascular mortality. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) may play differentiated roles in the pathogenesis of RA. We had observed that high serum levels of MBL increased the risk of ischemic heart disease in patients with RA. In this followup study we describe the mortality in a cohort of 229 Danish patients with RA. We examine if previously reported factors and MBL influence the risk of overall death and death due to cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Known predictors of RA mortality were assessed. MBL extended genotypes (YA/YA, YA/XA, XA/XA, YA/YO, XA/YO, YO/YO) were determined; MBL serum concentrations were measured. The vital status and causes of death were assessed in a prospective study. RESULTS: The median followup was 10.3 years. The overall risk of death was 4% per year. Comparing mortality in the RA cohort with mortality in an age- and sex-matched cohort based on the general Danish population, we found significantly increased overall mortality [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, and cardiovascular mortality (SMR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.6)]. In multivariate analysis, significant predictors of overall death were extraarticular manifestations, positive rheumatoid factor, increased C-reactive protein (CRP), poor nutritional state, and serum MBL. Predictors of cardiovascular death were Health Assessment Questionnaire score, increased CRP, poor nutritional state, and the high-producing MBL genotype YA/YA. CONCLUSION: Both overall and cardiovascular mortality were increased in Danish patients with RA. In our cohort, states of high MBL production and several previously reported factors contributed significantly to this increased risk of overall death and cardiovascular death.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in a prospective study of 97 nondiabetic uremic patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Included were 57 kidney recipients (Tx group, age 39 +/- 13 years) and 40 uremic patients remaining on the waiting list for kidney transplantation (uremic controls, age 47 +/- 11 years). All were examined at baseline before possible transplantation and after 12 months. The prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and insulin secretion index (Isecr) were estimated using an oral glucose tolerance test with measurements of plasma glucose and plasma insulin. RESULTS: One year after transplantation NODM was present in 14% (8 of 57) compared with 5% (2 of 40) in the uremic control group (P = 0.01). ISI in the Tx group deteriorated from 6.8 +/- 3.9 before transplantation to 4.9 +/- 2.8 at 12 months after transplantation (P = 0.005), and a slight increase in Isecr from 37 +/- 19 to 46 +/- 22 (P = 0.02) was seen. No significant changes occurred in the uremic controls (ISI was 7.9 +/- 5 and 8.5 +/- 5, and Isecr was 31 +/- 17 and 28 +/- 15). Using multivariate ordinal logistic regression, pre-Tx ISI and age predicted NODM (odds ratios: 0.82, P = 0.01 and 1.06, P = 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: One year after kidney transplantation, NODM was present in 14% of patients. This was mainly caused by an increase in insulin resistance and was observed despite improvement in insulin secretion.
RefSource: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Apr;5(4):560-2