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Adverse effects of a social contract smoking prevention program among children in Qu├ębec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148588
Source
Tob Control. 2009 Dec;18(6):474-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
S. Kairouz
J. O'Loughlin
J. Laguë
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Concordia University, Montreal, Québec, Canada. skairouz@alcor.concordia.ca
Source
Tob Control. 2009 Dec;18(6):474-8
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Behavior - psychology
Competitive Behavior
Female
Health Education - methods
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Peer Group
Quebec - epidemiology
School Health Services
Self Efficacy
Smoking - epidemiology - prevention & control
Smoking Cessation - methods
Truth Disclosure
Abstract
To evaluate the impact of a smoke-free class competition in elementary schools in Québec, Canada before widespread dissemination of the program across the province.
In a quasiexperimental study design, 843 students in 27 schools exposed to "Mission TNT.06" were compared to 1213 students in 57 matched comparison schools. Baseline data were collected in grade 6 prior to implementation of the program. Follow-up data were collected in grade 7 after students had transitioned to secondary school.
The program improved knowledge about the harmful effects of second-hand smoke, but had no impact on knowledge about the harmful effects of smoking, attitudes about the acceptability of cigarettes, beliefs about the tobacco industry, or self-efficacy to resist peer pressure to smoke. After exposure to the program, intervention students were more likely to misreport their smoking status and to report unfavourable attitudes about classmates who smoke.
Mission TNT.06 may encourage young smokers to misreport their smoking status and to marginalise classmates who smoke. These findings prompted recommendations to conduct more in-depth evaluation of the smoke-free class competition before widespread dissemination of the program across the province.
PubMed ID
19748883 View in PubMed
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Age and competition level on injuries in female ice hockey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115361
Source
Int J Sports Med. 2013 Aug;34(8):756-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Keightley M
Reed N
Green S
Taha T
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. michelle.keightley@utoronto.ca
Source
Int J Sports Med. 2013 Aug;34(8):756-9
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Athletes
Athletic Injuries - epidemiology - physiopathology
Child
Competitive Behavior
Female
Hockey - injuries
Humans
Ontario - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The objective of this study was to describe the number, types and locations of known injuries occurring across different age categories and levels of competition in female ice hockey within the Ontario Women's Hockey Association from 2004/05 to 2007/08. We further examined under which aforementioned factors and combination of factors an unusually high or low number of injuries was recorded. Secondary analysis of anonymized injury data was conducted. The most common known injury type was strain/sprain, followed by concussion while the most frequent injury location was head/face/mouth. Analysis of deviance indicated that a significantly higher than expected number of sprain/strain, concussion and laceration injuries were recorded compared to all other injury types. In addition, there were a higher number of injuries recorded at the AA level compared to all other levels of competition. Finally, the age categories of Peewee, Midget and Intermediate within the AA level of competition, as well as Senior/Adult within the Houseleague level of competition also recorded a significantly higher number of injuries compared to other combinations of descriptive factors. Further research with female youth is needed to better understand the high number of injuries, including concussions, reported overall.
PubMed ID
23516144 View in PubMed
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Aggression -- quantitative data. [Letter]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1470
Source
American Journal of Psychiatry. 129(2):152.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1972
Author
Lester, D.
Source
American Journal of Psychiatry. 129(2):152.
Date
1972
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Homicide
Suicide
Aggression
Competitive Behavior
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Ethnic Groups
Humans
Inuits
Social Behavior
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2719.
PubMed ID
5041070 View in PubMed
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[Agonistic behavior: model, experiment, perspectives]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10657
Source
Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1999 Jan;85(1):67-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1999
Author
N N Kudriavtseva
Author Affiliation
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Acad. Sci., Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russia.
Source
Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 1999 Jan;85(1):67-83
Date
Jan-1999
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aggression - physiology
Agonistic Behavior - physiology
Animals
Competitive Behavior - physiology
Conflict (Psychology)
Dominance-Subordination
English Abstract
Male
Mice
Abstract
Repeated experiences of social victories or defeats in daily agonistic confrontations led to different changes of the brain neurotransmitter activities in male mice with alternative types of social behaviour. Total activation of the brain dopamine metabolism was found in winners. Chronic defeats were accompanied by specific changes in serotonin and noradrenaline metabolism in limbic areas of the brain. Between losers and winners, significant differences were found in emotionality, exploratory activity, locomotion, level of anxiety, communicative behaviour, and alcohol consumption, as well as in immune responses and susceptibility to transplanted Krebs-2 tumour growth, gonadal function, and gastric mucosa damage. A sensory contact technique is proposed for studying the neurophysiological consequences of social conflicts.
PubMed ID
10389163 View in PubMed
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An Enriched Environment Promotes Shelter-Seeking Behaviour and Survival of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile European Lobster (Homarus gammarus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284772
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0159807
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Stian Aspaas
Ellen Sofie Grefsrud
Anders Fernö
Knut Helge Jensen
Henrik Trengereid
Ann-Lisbeth Agnalt
Source
PLoS One. 2016;11(8):e0159807
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aggression - physiology
Animals
Aquaculture - methods
Competitive Behavior - physiology
Environment
Homing Behavior - physiology
Nephropidae - physiology
Nesting Behavior - physiology
Norway
Survival Analysis
Time Factors
Abstract
The high loss of newly released hatchery-reared European lobster (Homarus gammarus) juveniles for stock enhancement is believed to be the result of maladaptive anti-predator behaviour connected to deprived stimuli in the hatchery environment. Our objective was to learn if an enriched hatchery environment enhances shelter-seeking behaviour and survival. In the "naïve" treatment, the juveniles were raised in single compartments without substrate and shelter whereas juveniles in the "exposed" treatment experienced substrate, shelter and interactions with conspecifics. Three experiments with increasing complexity were conducted. Few differences in shelter-seeking behaviour were found between treatments when one naïve or one exposed juvenile were observed alone. When observing interactions between one naïve and one exposed juvenile competing for shelter, naïve juveniles more often initiated the first aggressive encounter. The third experiment was set up to simulate a release for stock enhancement. Naïve and exposed juveniles were introduced to a semi-natural environment including substrate, a limited number of shelters and interactions with conspecifics. Shelter occupancy was recorded three times during a period of 35 days. Exposed juveniles occupied more shelters, grew larger and had higher survival compared with naïve juveniles. Our results demonstrate that experience of environmental complexity and social interactions increase shelter-seeking ability and survival in hatchery reared lobster juveniles.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27560932 View in PubMed
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Are elder siblings helpers or competitors? Antagonistic fitness effects of sibling interactions in humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118745
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Jan 7;280(1750):20122313
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-7-2013
Author
Aïda Nitsch
Charlotte Faurie
Virpi Lummaa
Author Affiliation
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. a.nitsch@sheffield.ac.uk
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Jan 7;280(1750):20122313
Date
Jan-7-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Child
Competitive Behavior
Female
Finland
Genetic Fitness
Humans
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Reproduction
Retrospective Studies
Sex Factors
Sibling Relations
Social Behavior
Survival Analysis
Abstract
Determining the fitness consequences of sibling interactions is pivotal for understanding the evolution of family living, but studies investigating them across lifetime are lacking. We used a large demographic dataset on preindustrial humans from Finland to study the effect of elder siblings on key life-history traits. The presence of elder siblings improved the chances of younger siblings surviving to sexual maturity, suggesting that despite a competition for parental resources, they may help rearing their younger siblings. After reaching sexual maturity however, same-sex elder siblings' presence was associated with reduced reproductive success in the focal individual, indicating the existence of competition among same-sex siblings. Overall, lifetime fitness was reduced by same-sex elder siblings' presence and increased by opposite-sex elder siblings' presence. Our study shows opposite effects of sibling interactions depending on the life-history stage, and highlights the need for using long-term fitness measures to understand the selection pressures acting on sibling interactions.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23173210 View in PubMed
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Balancing performance-based expectations with a holistic perspective on coaching: a qualitative study of Swedish women's national football team coaches' practice experiences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291869
Source
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2017 Dec; 12(1):1358580
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Eva-Carin Lindgren
Natalie Barker-Ruchti
Author Affiliation
a School of Health and Welfare , Halmstad University , Halmstad , Sweden.
Source
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2017 Dec; 12(1):1358580
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Athletes
Athletic Performance
Attitude
Competitive Behavior
Empathy
Female
Football
Humans
Mentoring
Qualitative Research
Soccer
Social Environment
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Teaching
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore how an exclusive sample of women's national football team coaches described how they implement careful coaching while facing social and organizational pressure to win medals.
To consider coaches' negotiations, we drew on Noddings' concept of caring. Using an interpretive research paradigm, we conducted in-depth interviews with five Swedish women's national football team coaches. An abductive approach was used to simultaneously process the theoretical framework of "ethics of care" and the empirical data.
The coaches unanimously adopted a holistic perspective to coaching. The coaching strategies they described included promoting players' development, well-being, and sustainable elite performance; listening to the players' voices and engaging in dialogue; and creating a positive environment and promoting fair play.
These findings demonstrate that the women coaches, despite performance pressure, adopt caring coaching in the form of Noddings' pedagogical modelling, dialogue, and confirmation strategies, and provide an example of how coaches can adopt caring, holistic, and athlete-centred coaching while working at the highest level of competitive sport and achieving competitive success.
Notes
Cites: J Sports Sci. 2005 Oct;23(10):1129-41 PMID 16194989
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PubMed ID
28812449 View in PubMed
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Batting last as a home advantage factor in men's NCAA tournament baseball.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172647
Source
J Sports Sci. 2005 Jul;23(7):681-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Steven R Bray
Jeff Obara
Matt Kwan
Author Affiliation
Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. sbray@mcmaster.ca
Source
J Sports Sci. 2005 Jul;23(7):681-6
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alberta
Baseball - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Competitive Behavior
Humans
Male
Retrospective Studies
Sensitivity and specificity
Social Environment
Social Support
Travel
Abstract
In baseball and softball, there is a rule that allows the home team to have the last at-bat and thus the final opportunity to win the game. However, in tournament play, this rule is often set aside and, instead, batting order is decided by other means (e.g. tournament rules, the flip of a coin). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the batting last rule on game outcome in NCAA men's regional tournament baseball. It was hypothesized that host (i.e. home) teams would win a greater percentage of the games in which they batted last compared with when they batted first. This hypothesis was not supported. Closer examination of the last inning of play showed home teams were no more likely to have won the game during their last bat than visitors playing other visitors. The results suggest that the batting last rule contributes minimally, if at all, to home advantage in NCAA tournament baseball.
PubMed ID
16195017 View in PubMed
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Bullying in the school environment: an injury risk factor?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31506
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2002;(412):20-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
L. Laflamme
K. Engström
J. Möller
M. Alldahl
J. Hallqvist
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2002;(412):20-5
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Case-Control Studies
Child
Competitive Behavior
Cross-Over Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Schools
Social Behavior Disorders - complications - ethnology - psychology
Social Environment
Students - psychology
Sweden
Wounds and Injuries - etiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe a research project assessing the role of bullying at school as an injury trigger and the modification effect of the socio-economic environment of the victims. Preliminary results are also presented. METHOD: A case-crossover and a case-referent design were combined. The study base consisted of all children aged 10-15 years residing in the Stockholm county in 2000-02. Cases were recruited at the county's children hospital and interviewed shortly after the injury, using a specially designed questionnaire. RESULTS: Preliminary analyses (261 interviews) reveal that about two injured children out of 10 reported having been bullied during the school term. Also, one out of 10 had been bullied shortly enough before the injury for bullying to be considered as a trigger. The circumstances of occurrence of those injuries varied. CONCLUSION: Bullying, apart from being frequent in the school environment, is quite likely to act as an injury trigger.
PubMed ID
12072121 View in PubMed
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Characteristics of successful and failed mentoring relationships: a qualitative study across two academic health centers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118834
Source
Acad Med. 2013 Jan;88(1):82-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Sharon E Straus
Mallory O Johnson
Christine Marquez
Mitchell D Feldman
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Sharon.straus@utoronto.ca
Source
Acad Med. 2013 Jan;88(1):82-9
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Academic Medical Centers
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Communication
Competitive Behavior
Conflict of Interest
Faculty, Medical
Female
Humans
Interprofessional Relations
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mentors
Middle Aged
Ontario
San Francisco
Students, Medical
Abstract
To explore the mentor-mentee relationship with a focus on determining the characteristics of effective mentors and mentees and understanding the factors influencing successful and failed mentoring relationships.
The authors completed a qualitative study through the Departments of Medicine at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine and the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine between March 2010 and January 2011. They conducted individual, semistructured interviews with faculty members from different career streams and ranks and analyzed transcripts of the interviews, drawing on grounded theory.
The authors completed interviews with 54 faculty members and identified a number of themes, including the characteristics of effective mentors and mentees, actions of effective mentors, characteristics of successful and failed mentoring relationships, and tactics for successful mentoring relationships. Successful mentoring relationships were characterized by reciprocity, mutual respect, clear expectations, personal connection, and shared values. Failed mentoring relationships were characterized by poor communication, lack of commitment, personality differences, perceived (or real) competition, conflicts of interest, and the mentor's lack of experience.
Successful mentorship is vital to career success and satisfaction for both mentors and mentees. Yet challenges continue to inhibit faculty members from receiving effective mentorship. Given the importance of mentorship on faculty members' careers, future studies must address the association between a failed mentoring relationship and a faculty member's career success, how to assess different approaches to mediating failed mentoring relationships, and how to evaluate strategies for effective mentorship throughout a faculty member's career.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23165266 View in PubMed
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86 records – page 1 of 9.