The ability to identify letters of different size remains, in relation to the allowed effort, the most informative measure of visual capacity. Numerous letter charts have been produced with varying design, size, and size progression of the letters. Attempts to 'standardize' letter testing have been fruitless. In Sweden, the most commonly used letter charts show deficiencies in letter selection, size, and progression. In the present study, letter legibility was studied. 10 letters of average legibility were selected and a new chart constructed using these letters in sizes corresponding to acuities from 0.1 to 2.0. A geometric size progression was found optimal (factor 1.26).
Cognitive therapy is a fairly new form of psychotherapy. The article compares this form of therapy with the more common psychodynamic oriented psychotherapy on the one side and behavioural therapy on the other side. The authors define the most common terms in cognitive therapy (basic beliefs and automatic thoughts), and describe the content of the therapy. Finally they outline the areas where cognitive therapy has been proven most beneficial (treatment of depression, anxiety states, chronic pain, psychosomatics and increase in patient compliance), and discuss the future use of cognitive therapy in Norway.
Comparing the scientific literature to practices in Sweden reveals that radiotherapy is given to less than 34% of all patients with tumor diseases. This figure is lower than rates reported in other countries. For most tumor types, curative radiotherapy in Sweden is generally similar to practices supported in the literature. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy and interstitial brachytherapy are used much too sparingly. Palliative radiotherapy is underutilized in Sweden. The need for radiotherapy can be expected to increase until the year 2010.