To address the gaps between need and access, and between treatment guidelines and their implementation for mental illness, through capacity building of front-line health workers.
Following a learning needs assessment, work-based continuing education courses in evidence-supported psychotherapies were developed for front-line workers in underserviced community settings. The 5-hour courses on the fundamentals of cognitive-behavioural therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, motivational interviewing, and dialectical behaviour therapy each included videotaped captioned simulations, interactive lesson plans, and clinical practice behaviour reminders. Two courses, sequentially offered in 7 underserviced settings, were subjected to a mixed methods evaluation. Ninety-three nonmedical front-line workers enrolled in the program. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess pre- and postintervention changes in knowledge and self-efficacy. Qualitative data from 5 semistructured focus groups with 25 participants were also analyzed.
Significant pre- and postintervention changes in knowledge (P
To identify the determinants of practice location and of outreach consultation of recently graduated psychiatrists.
We surveyed 153 psychiatrists who graduated from the University of Toronto Department of Psychiatry between January 1990 and June 2002 (response rate 51%), on the basis of a self-administered mail questionnaire. The survey assessed factors that influenced practice location and outreach consultation, such as demographics, links to practice communities, and outreach experiences, including rural or northern electives as a resident.
Professional variables were rated as the most important factors in choosing a practice location. Variables such as age or sex were not significantly associated with location. Nine percent reported working in communities of less than 100,000, and only 1% practised in Northern Ontario. Eighteen percent practised in the same location where they were born or raised. Forty-four percent had rural or northern experience as a resident but almost exclusively in the form of short, fly-in consultation electives. Twenty-four percent indicated that they provide outreach consultation. Psychiatry residents who participated in outreach electives were 10 times as likely as those who did not participate to continue outreach as a consultant.
Although early exposure to rural or northern medicine leads to significantly greater continued involvement in outreach activities after graduation, our findings suggest the need for more long-term, on-site residency training opportunities in rural and remote areas.