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Activity of telithromycin and comparators against isolates of Legionella pneumophila collected from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections: PROTEKT Years 1-5.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78204
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007 Jul;13(7):743-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2007
Author
Dunbar L M
Farrell D J
Author Affiliation
LSU Health Science Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. ldunba@lsuhsc.edu
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007 Jul;13(7):743-6
Date
Jul-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Female
Humans
Ketolides - pharmacology
Legionella pneumophila - drug effects - isolation & purification
Legionnaires' Disease - epidemiology - microbiology
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
World Health
Abstract
The in-vitro activity of telithromycin and comparator antibacterial agents was determined against clinical isolates of Legionella pneumophila collected in the PROTEKT surveillance study. In total, 133 isolates were collected between 1999 and 2004 from 13 countries (Australia, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the USA). MICs were determined by broth microdilution. Telithromycin maintained activity between Year 1 (MIC(90) 0.015 mg/L) and Year 5 (MIC(90) 0.03 mg/L), as did the comparator antibacterial agents. Telithromycin appears to be a candidate for coverage of legionellosis in the empirical treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infection.
PubMed ID
17403130 View in PubMed
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Aetiology and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281873
Source
Clin Respir J. 2016 Nov;10(6):756-764
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Wenche Røysted
Øystein Simonsen
Andrew Jenkins
Marjut Sarjomaa
Martin Veel Svendsen
Eivind Ragnhildstveit
Yngvar Tveten
Anita Kanestrøm
Halfrid Waage
Jetmund Ringstad
Source
Clin Respir J. 2016 Nov;10(6):756-764
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Female
Gram-Negative Bacteria - isolation & purification
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Gram-Positive Bacteria - isolation & purification
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Hospitalization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
In Norway, data on the aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized patients are limited. The aims of this study were to investigate the bacterial aetiology of CAP in hospitalized patients in Norway, risk factors for CAP and possible differences in risk factors between patients with Legionnaire's disease and pneumonia because of other causes.
Adult patients with radiologically confirmed CAP admitted to hospital were eligible for the study. Routine aerobic and Legionella culture of sputum, blood culture, urinary antigen test for Legionella pneumophila and Streptococcus pneumoniae, polymerase chain reaction detection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Bordetella pertussis from throat specimens, and serology for L.?pneumophila serogroup 1-6 were performed. A questionnaire, which included demographic and clinical data, risk factors and treatment, was completed.
We included 374 patients through a 20-month study period in 2007-2008. The aetiological agent was detected in 37% of cases. S.?pneumoniae (20%) was the most prevalent agent, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (6%) and Legionella spp. (6%). Eight Legionella cases were diagnosed by urinary antigen test, of which four also had positive serology. In addition, 13 Legionella cases were diagnosed by serology. The degree of comorbidity was high. An increased risk of hospital-diagnosed Legionella pneumonia was found among patients with a diagnosis of chronic congestive heart failure.
Our results indicate that S.?pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in hospitalized patients, and the prevalence of Legionella pneumonia is probably higher in Norway than recognized previously.
PubMed ID
25764275 View in PubMed
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Bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with bloodstream infection: frequencies of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (United States and Canada, 1997).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205155
Source
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Jul;42(7):1762-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1998
Author
M A Pfaller
R N Jones
G V Doern
K. Kugler
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA. mpfaller@blue.weeg.uiowa.edu
Source
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Jul;42(7):1762-70
Date
Jul-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Canada - epidemiology
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Gram-Negative Bacteria - drug effects - isolation & purification
Gram-Positive Bacteria - drug effects - isolation & purification
Health Care Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
The SENTRY Program was established in January 1997 to measure the predominant pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns of nosocomial and community-acquired infections over a broad network of sentinel hospitals in the United States (30 sites), Canada (8 sites), South America (10 sites), and Europe (24 sites). During the first 6-month study period (January to June 1997), a total of 5,058 bloodstream infections (BSI) were reported by North American SENTRY participants (4,119 from the United States and 939 from Canada). In both the United States and Canada, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common BSI isolates, followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterococci. Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-hemolytic streptococci were also among the 10 most frequently reported species in both the United States and Canada. Although the rank orders of pathogens in the United States and Canada were similar, distinct differences were noted in the antimicrobial susceptibilities of several pathogens. Overall, U.S. isolates were considerably more resistant than those from Canada. The differences in the proportions of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus isolates (26.2 versus 2.7% for U.S. and Canadian isolates, respectively), vancomycin-resistant enterococcal isolates (17.7 versus 0% for U.S. and Canadian isolates, respectively), and ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter sp. isolates (30.6 versus 6.2% for U.S. and Canadian isolates, respectively) dramatically emphasize the relative lack of specific antimicrobial resistance genes (mecA, vanA, and vanB) in the Canadian microbial population. Among U.S. isolates, resistance to oxacillin among staphylococci, to vancomycin among enterococci, to penicillin among pneumococci, and to ceftazidime among Enterobacter spp. was observed in both nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens, although in almost every instance the proportion of resistant strains was higher among nosocomial isolates. Antimicrobial resistance continues to increase, and ongoing surveillance of microbial pathogens and resistance profiles is essential on national and international scales.
Notes
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PubMed ID
9661018 View in PubMed
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[Bacteriological monitoring of infective agents of purulent septic diseases in an emergency hospital].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186316
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2003 Jan-Feb;(1):10-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
D D Men'shikov
R F Astaf'eva
B L Kurilin
I V Grunenkova
N N Lashenkova
S V Kuprikov
E D Men'shikova
V A Vasil'ev
Author Affiliation
Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Aid, Moscow, Russia.
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2003 Jan-Feb;(1):10-3
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Emergencies
Enterobacteriaceae - isolation & purification
Gram-Positive Cocci - isolation & purification
Hospitals
Humans
Moscow - epidemiology
Proteus - isolation & purification
Pseudomonas - isolation & purification
Sepsis - epidemiology - microbiology
Suppuration - microbiology
Abstract
During the period of 1995-2001 bacteriological examination of 13,842 patients with purulent septic diseases (PSD) was carried out. The statistical processing of data revealed that equalization of the dynamic rows of intensive and extensive values characterizing the number of patients with PSD caused by etiologically important infective agents made it possible to evaluate the reliability of information. A trend to increased etiological importance of the genera Pseudomonas, Escherichia and Klebsiella was established. The number of diseases caused by Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Proteus decreased.
PubMed ID
12630345 View in PubMed
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Burden of community-onset bloodstream infection: a population-based assessment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166162
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Aug;135(6):1037-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
K B Laupland
D B Gregson
W W Flemons
D. Hawkins
T. Ross
D L Church
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, and Calgary Health Region, Alberta, Canada. kevin.laupland@calgaryhealthregion.ca
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Aug;135(6):1037-42
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alberta - epidemiology
Bacteremia - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity
Pneumococcal Infections - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology
Abstract
Although community-onset bloodstream infection (BSI) is recognized to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of population-based studies defining its overall burden. We conducted population-based laboratory surveillance for all community-onset BSI in the Calgary Health Region during 2000-2004. A total of 4467 episodes of community-onset BSI were identified for an overall annual incidence of 81.6/100,000. The three species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were responsible for the majority of community-onset BSI; they occurred at annual rates of 25.8, 13.5, and 10.1/100,000, respectively. Overall 3445/4467 (77%) episodes resulted in hospital admission representing 0.7% of all admissions to major acute care hospitals. The subsequent hospital length of stay was a median of 9 (interquartile range, 5-15) days; the total days of acute hospitalization attributable to community-onset BSI was 51,146 days or 934 days/100,000 annually. Four hundred and sixty patients died in hospital for a case-fatality rate of 13%. Community-onset BSI is common and has a major patient and societal impact. These data support further efforts to reduce the burden of community-onset BSI.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17156500 View in PubMed
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Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178028
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2004 Oct;58(2):109-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
A-M Kerttula
O. Lyytikäinen
S. Salmenlinna
J. Vuopio-Varkila
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, 00300 Helsinki, Finland. anne-marie.kerttula@ktl.fi
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2004 Oct;58(2):109-14
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Services for the Aged - standards
History, 15th Century
Homes for the Aged - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infection Control - methods
Laboratories - statistics & numerical data
Male
Methicillin Resistance
Middle Aged
Nursing Homes - statistics & numerical data
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Questionnaires
Registries
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Staphylococcus aureus - classification - isolation & purification
Abstract
Data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cases notified to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) and antibiotic resistance profiles of MRSA isolates sent to the national reference laboratory between 1997 and 2002 were analysed. In addition, the diagnostic methods used for MRSA identification in Finnish microbiology laboratories, the number of MRSA screening specimens studied, and the MRSA situation in long-term care facilities in 2001 were reviewed. MRSA cases notified to the NIDR rose from 120 in 1997 to 597 in 2002 (from 2.3 to 11.5 cases per 100,000 population). The increase was greatest in elderly people and outside Helsinki metropolitan area, in the districts where the proportion of non-multiresistant strains was most prominent. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standard's guidelines for the oxacillin disk diffusion test were followed, except for the incubation temperature and time, which may have hindered detection of some MRSA strains. There was a wide geographic variation in the rates of MRSA, but this was not related to screening activity. MRSA isolates from long-term facilities accounted for more than half of the notifications to the NIDR in 2001.
PubMed ID
15474181 View in PubMed
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Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iceland from 2000 to 2008: a challenge to current guidelines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140774
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Nov;48(11):4221-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Barbara Juliane Holzknecht
Hjördis Hardardottir
Gunnsteinn Haraldsson
Henrik Westh
Freyja Valsdottir
Kit Boye
Sigfus Karlsson
Karl Gustaf Kristinsson
Olafur Gudlaugsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine, Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. barbarah@web.de
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Nov;48(11):4221-7
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bacterial Toxins - genetics
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Child
Child, Preschool
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology
DNA Fingerprinting
Disease Outbreaks
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Exotoxins - genetics
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Infant
Leukocidins - genetics
Male
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Middle Aged
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - pathology
Virulence Factors - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is continuously changing. Iceland has a low incidence of MRSA. A "search and destroy" policy (screening patients with defined risk factors and attempting eradication in carriers) has been implemented since 1991. Clinical and microbiological data of all MRSA patients from the years 2000 to 2008 were collected prospectively. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing of the repeat region of the Staphylococcus protein A gene (spa typing), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and screening for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Two hundred twenty-six infected (60%) or colonized (40%) individuals were detected (annual incidence 2.5 to 16/100,000). From 2000 to 2003, two health care-associated outbreaks dominated (spa types t037 and t2802), which were successfully controlled with extensive infection control measures. After 2004, an increasing number of community-associated (CA) cases without relation to the health care system occurred. A great variety of clones (40 PFGE types and 49 spa types) were found, reflecting an influx of MRSA from abroad. The USA300 and Southwest Pacific (SWP) clones were common. SCCmec type IV was most common (72%), and 38% of the isolates were PVL positive. The incidence of MRSA in Iceland has increased since 1999 but remains low and has been stable in the last years. The search and destroy policy was effective to control MRSA in the health care setting. However, MRSA in Iceland is now shifting into the community, challenging the current Icelandic guidelines, which are tailored to the health care system.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20844224 View in PubMed
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Chlamydia species as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185240
Source
Eur Respir J. 2003 May;21(5):779-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
T J Marrie
R W Peeling
T. Reid
E. De Carolis
Author Affiliation
Dept of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. tom.marrie@ualberta.ca
Source
Eur Respir J. 2003 May;21(5):779-84
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Chlamydiaceae
Chlamydiaceae Infections - epidemiology
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Chlamydophila psittaci
Cohort Studies
Community-Acquired Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Pneumonia, Bacterial - epidemiology - microbiology
Prospective Studies
Abstract
Chlamydia pneumoniae has been implicated as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in several studies. However, there has been no comprehensive study of the role of Chlamydia species (C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci (avian and feline strains) and C. pecorum) as a cause of CAP. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci and C. pecorum as causes of CAP. A prospective cohort observational study of CAP was conducted at 15 teaching centres in eight Canadian provinces between January 1996-October 1997. Acute (n=539) and convalescent (n=272) serum samples were obtained for determination of antibody titres to C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, C. pecorum, C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila serogroups I-VI, Streptococcus pneumoniae and various respiratory viruses. Twelve of 539 (2.2%) patients had acute C. pneumoniae pneumonia and an additional 32 (5.9%) had possible acute infection. C. pneumoniae was the sole pathogen in 16 of 42 (38.1%) of these patients. The most common copathogens were S. pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus type A. C. pneumoniae pneumonia patients were older and more likely to show congestive heart failure compared to bacteraemic S. pneumoniae patients. The latter had a lower mean diastolic blood pressure, a higher white blood cell count and a lower arterial carbon dioxide tension. Two patients had antibody titres suggestive of recent infection with the feline strain of C. psittaci. Although numerically Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia, no distinctive clinical features associated with this pathogen were detected in the present study. Feline Chlamydia psittaci may cause a few cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Avian Chlamydia psittaci should be considered only if there is a compatible epidemiological history.
Notes
Comment In: Eur Respir J. 2003 May;21(5):741-212765413
PubMed ID
12765420 View in PubMed
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67 records – page 1 of 7.