The main aim of the Swedish Women's Peace reform in 1998 was to enhance criminal legal protection for women exposed to violence in heterosexual relationships and to promote gender equality. However, these ambitions risk being contravened in a masculinist criminal legal system. One problem concerns how the victim is constructed in criminal legal cases. The author argues that moral balancing and discourses of responsibility and guilt in Swedish cases constrain the agency possible for women and suggest that a more comprehensive policy in Sweden must be developed to include violent men, their agency, and their responsibility for the violence.
Networks are an increasingly popular way to deal with the lack of integration of traumatic brain injury (TBI) care. Knowledge of the stakes of the network form of organization is critical in deciding whether or not to implement a TBI network to improve the continuity of TBI care.
To report the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of a TBI network and to consider these elements in a discussion about whether networks are a suitable solution to fragmented TBI care.
In-depth interviews with 12 representatives of network organization members. Interviews were qualitatively analyzed using the EGIPSS model of performance.
The majority of elements reported were related to the network's adaptation to its environment and more precisely to its capacity to acquire resources. The issue of value maintenance also received considerable attention from participants.
The network form of organization seems particularly sensitive to environmental issues, such as resource acquisition and legitimacy. The authors suggest that the network form of organization is a suitable way to increase the continuity of TBI care if the following criteria are met: (1) expectations toward network effectiveness to increase continuity of care are moderate and realistic; (2) sufficient resources are devoted to the design, implementation, and maintenance of the network; (3) a network's existence and actions are deemed legitimate by community and organization member partners; and (4) there is a good collaborative climate between the organizations.
Chronic Diseases (CDs) are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. CD experts have long promoted the use of integrated and intersectoral approaches to strengthen CD prevention efforts. This qualitative case study examined the perceived benefits and challenges associated with implementing an intersectoral network dedicated to CD prevention. Through interviewing key members of the Alberta Healthy Living Network (AHLN, or the Network), two overarching themes emerged from the data. The first relates to contrasting views on the role of the AHLN in relation to its actions and outcomes, especially concerning policy advocacy. The second focuses on the benefits and contributions of the AHLN and the challenge of demonstrating non-quantifiable outcomes. While the respondents agreed that the AHLN has contributed to intersectoral work in CD prevention in Alberta and to collaboration among Network members, several did not view this achievement as an end in itself and appealed to the Network to engage more in change-oriented activities. Managing contrasting expectations has had a significant impact on the functioning of the Network.
This article aims to present the beneficial effects associated with the local implementation of an integrated network in palliative care, as perceived by diverse constituency groups. A case study was conducted in the province of Quebec, Canada, using individual (n=16) and group (n=16) interviews, with a total of 106 participants (i.e. managers and formal and informal caregivers). From a content analysis, two categories of beneficial effects emerged: those associated with professional practice and those with patient services. The most important effects of this organisational initiative were found to be the recognition of the palliative care domain necessitating specialized competencies, an improved interdisciplinary collaboration, and more efficient circulation of information between care settings, as well as improved accessibility, continuity and quality of care and services to patients at the end of life.
Interprofessional (IP) community-oriented health education is an important strategy for achieving high quality health care. The purpose of this project was to develop collaborative partnerships between rural communities and Thompson Rivers University, Canada, to identify the needs and priorities for building capacity for IP placements in two rural communities in the Interior of BC.
The project developed and implemented a Community-Based Participatory Action Research (CBPAR) workshop for rural health practitioners to strengthen collaborative partnerships. Focused group discussions were used to explore the needs and priorities for inter-professional placements, and to better understand the nature of IP practice in each community. Documentation and relevant academic literature was reviewed on IP practice and education, rural practice, and field education.
The project identified the needs, priorities and challenges for IP placements, and successfully developed collaborative partnerships between rural communities and the university. Discussions revealed that allied health professionals were interested in facilitating IP placements but cited the lack of financial resources, accommodation in rural communities, and financial incentives for student transportation as concerns. The project revealed that rural health practitioners view IP placements as an avenue to address their recruitment and retention challenges.
Coordination of potential IP education opportunities proved to be more difficult than anticipated. Time was a factor, coordination of student timetables in social work, nursing and human service was challenging, and there was a lack of support and commitment from decision-makers and stakeholders at all levels.
The development of a pan-Canadian network of primary care research networks for studying issues in primary care has been the vision of Canadian primary care researchers for many years. With the opportunity for funding from the Public Health Agency of Canada and the support of the College of Family Physicians of Canada, we have planned and developed a project to assess the feasibility of a network of networks of family medicine practices that exclusively use electronic medical records. The Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network will collect longitudinal data from practices across Canada to assess the primary care epidemiology and management of 5 chronic diseases: hypertension, diabetes, depression, chronic obstructive lung disease, and osteoarthritis. This article reports on the 7-month first phase of the feasibility project of 7 regional networks in Canada to develop a business plan, including governance, mission, and vision; develop memorandum of agreements with the regional networks and their respective universities; develop and obtain approval of research ethics board applications; develop methods for data extraction, a Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network database, and initial assessment of the types of data that can be extracted; and recruitment of 10 practices at each network that use electronic medical records. The project will continue in phase 2 of the feasibility testing until April 2010.
In 2000, cancer health indicators for Native Hawaiians were worse than those of other ethnic groups in Hawai'i, and Native Hawaiians were under-represented in research endeavors. To build capacity to reduce cancer health disparities, 'Imi Hale applied principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and empowerment theory. Strategies included: 1) engaging Native Hawaiians in defining cancer priorities; 2) developing culturally appropriate processes and products; 3) supplementing primary and secondary cancer prevention activities; 4) offering skills training and technical assistance; and 5) providing an infrastructure to support culturally appropriate research. Between 2000 and 2005, 'Imi Hale involved more than 8000 Native Hawaiians in education, training, and primary and secondary prevention activities; developed 24 culturally tailored educational products (brochures, curricula, and self-help kits); secured $1.1 million in additional program and research funds; trained 98 indigenous researchers, 79 of whom worked on research projects; and engaged more than 3000 other Native Hawaiians as research participants and advisors. Evidence of empowerment was seen in increased individual competence, enhanced community capacity and participation, reduced barriers, and improved supports to address cancer in Hawaiian communities. Operationalizing CBPR and empowerment requires a commitment to involving as many people as possible, addressing community priorities, following cultural protocol, developing and transferring skills, and supporting an infrastructure to reduce barriers and build supports to sustain change. This approach is time consuming, but necessary for building competence and capacity, especially in indigenous and minority communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
This brief commentary offers one reader's reactions to the ideas advanced by Huerta, Casebeer and VanderPlaat. I highlight the need for further elucidation of the construct, make suggestions to deal with some of identified paradoxes and build on the ideas for future development.