The main aim of the Swedish Women's Peace reform in 1998 was to enhance criminal legal protection for women exposed to violence in heterosexual relationships and to promote gender equality. However, these ambitions risk being contravened in a masculinist criminal legal system. One problem concerns how the victim is constructed in criminal legal cases. The author argues that moral balancing and discourses of responsibility and guilt in Swedish cases constrain the agency possible for women and suggest that a more comprehensive policy in Sweden must be developed to include violent men, their agency, and their responsibility for the violence.
Health prevention seeks to avoid the onset of disease or symptoms by eliminating or at least minimizing environmental factors that increase the risk of illness. This article describes Ability OnLine, an innovative program designed to reduce the isolation young people can experience in a healthcare facility or when confined to their home. The electronic bulletin board is a friendly platform for disabled and chronically ill children to easily communicate with their peers and adult and teen mentors.
This study aimed to (1) explore whether quality of life (QOL) is more associated with satisfaction with social participation (SP) than with level of accomplishment in SP and (2) examine respective correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP.
A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 155 older adults (mean age=73.7; 60% women) having various levels of activity limitations. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP (dependent variables) were estimated with the social roles items of the assessment of life habits. Potential correlates were human functioning components.
Correlations between QOL and accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP did not differ (P=0.71). However, best correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP were different. Higher accomplishment level of SP was best explained by younger age, activity level perceived as stable, no recent stressing event, better well-being, higher activity level, and fewer obstacles in "Physical environment and accessibility" (R2=0.79). Greater satisfaction with SP was best explained by activity level perceived as stable, better self-perceived health, better well-being, higher activity level, and more facilitators in "Social support and attitudes" (R2=0.51).
With some exceptions, these best correlates may be positively modified and thus warrant special attention in rehabilitation interventions.
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Ecosystems are complex adaptive systems that require flexible governance with the ability to respond to environmental feedback. We present, through examples from Sweden and Canada, the development of adaptive comanagement systems, showing how local groups self-organize, learn, and actively adapt to and shape change with social networks that connect institutions and organizations across levels and scales and that facilitate information flows. The development took place through a sequence of responses to environmental events that widened the scope of local management from a particular issue or resource to a broad set of issues related to ecosystem processes across scales and from individual actors, to group of actors to multiple-actor processes. The results suggest that the institutional and organizational landscapes should be approached as carefully as the ecological in order to clarify features that contribute to the resilience of social-ecological systems. These include the following: vision, leadership, and trust; enabling legislation that creates social space for ecosystem management; funds for responding to environmental change and for remedial action; capacity for monitoring and responding to environmental feedback; information flow through social networks; the combination of various sources of information and knowledge; and sense-making and arenas of collaborative learning for ecosystem management. We propose that the self-organizing process of adaptive comanagement development, facilitated by rules and incentives of higher levels, has the potential to expand desirable stability domains of a region and make social-ecological systems more robust to change.
Since 1993, a budding community health information network (CHIN) has been in operation in the Comox Valley in Canada. A general hospital and three multi-doctor clinics are linked electronically. The clinics operate without paper charts using a comprehensive clinic information system. The link is provided by RSALink, a commercial message exchange service, based on Health Link, a system developed at the University of Victoria (McDaniel et al., Can. Med. Inform. 1 (1994) 40-41; McDaniel, Dissertation, University of Victoria, Canada, 1994). Health Link is a highly adaptable message exchange service with rich functionality. Despite this, the system is used exclusively to receive laboratory results transmitted by the hospital's laboratory system (RSAStat). The results are deposited in the patient data base of a commercial clinic information system (CliniCare). This case is instructive because the users' selection of services available through Health Link allows us to observe the preferences in this informational sophisticated environment. Laboratory data transmission is appreciated as highly beneficial. The reliability, security and ample privacy protection and authentication features of Health Link, in contrast, are used in a black box mode and are not consciously exploited. This is consistent with our experience of the use of other systems which have operated for a substantial time, essentially without serious protection features. Our experience suggests that security and confidentiality features are exploited only to the extent that they do not require additional effort or conscientious intervention. This puts the system provider in the difficult position of either offering interactive systems that nobody will use, or providing automated features that nobody is aware of and that are therefore not used to full advantage--if at all.
Despite advancements in the development of the artificial pancreas, barriers in the form of proprietary data and communication protocols of diabetes devices have made the integration of these components challenging. The Artificial Pancreas Standards and Technical Platform Project is an initiative funded by the JDRF Canadian Clinical Trial Network with the goal of developing device communication standards for the interoperability of diabetes devices. Stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory agencies, and medical and patient communities have been engaged in advancing this effort. In this article, we describe this initiative along with the process involved in working with the standards organizations and stakeholders that are key to ensuring effective standards are developed and adopted. Discussion from a special session of the 12th Annual Diabetes Technology Meeting is also provided.
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