The information about 5 thousands Russian families with hereditary neuromuscular disorders (HNMD) was collected by means of both different genetic epidemiological methods and authors' own observations. On the basis of this material a computer database MYODYS in Excel 5.0 format was created, which included information about 30 different signs concerning 1920 families from 70 regions of Russia. The study of the data, included in MYODYS, revealed several problems in practical diagnosis of HNMD in Russia. It is necessary to resolve these important problems for correct genetic consulting and treatment. MYODYS database may serve as a basis for elaboration of a special complex programme for long-term support of the families with NNMD in Russia.
Twelve patients with anemias and their close relatives were examined: 8 adults (3 men and 5 women) and 4 children (3 boys and 1 girl). Six of them were Armenians, 1 woman was Russian, and the rest were of mixed origin: 3 Russian-Azerbaijan-Ukrainian, 1 child Russian-Ukrainian-African, and 1 woman Russian-Ukrainian. Hemoglobinopathies were detected in 10 subjects from 4 families (3 families from Donetsk and 1 from Moscow). Homozygotic beta-thalassemia major (Hb F 98.9%) was diagnosed in a 2-year-old Armenian girl from Donetsk. The girl lags behind in development and suffers from anemia with hepatosplenomegaly and jaundice. Heterozygotic beta-thalassemia minor with increased levels of Hb A2 and Hb F was diagnosed in her parents (Armenians from Azerbaijan). A 15-year-old Russian-Azerbaijan-Ukrainian boy from another family in Donetsk had beta-thalassemia with HbD (94%). The boy suffers from anemia with hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, and chronic hepatitis. Heterozygotic beta-thalassemia with increased levels of Hb A2 and Hb F was revealed in proband's mother and brother; the father was not examined. alpha-Thalassemia is suspected in a 3-year-old boy from a Russian-Ukrainian-African family in Donetsk; he presented with a very small "fast" abnormal hemoglobin fraction. The boy suffers from anemia with splenomegaly and systolic murmur. Blurred form of thalassemia minor is diagnosed in the mother. The father, an African from Zaire, was not examined. Heterozygotic beta-thalassemia with increased Hb A2 level was revealed in a 20-year-old Armenian boy from Moscow. He presented with manifest splenomegaly, chronic gastritis, and mitral valve prolapse. His mother suffers from thalassemia minor, was anemic during pregnancy, and there are cases of anemia in the family. No hematologic disorders were found in the father. No hemoglobinopathies were detected in a 59-year-old Russian women from the town of Tver with very grave anemia; apparently, her condition was acquired, but not hereditary. Data on patients in the city of Donetsk are of special interest, for there are virtually no reports about hemoglobinopathies in the Ukraine.
The trends in atherosclerosis presentation were followed up pathomorphologically in a two-stage epidemiological survey performed in 9 cities of CIC and Baltic states at 25-year interval. The investigations were conducted in accordance with WHO program. Stage 1 (1963-1968) covered 6121 cases, stage 2 (1985-1989) included 9201 cases. The material was collected on the condition of aortas and coronary arteries from 20-59-year-old males who were residents of the cities of Irkutsk, Yakutsk, Tallin, Tartu, Riga, Kharkov, Yalta, Ashkhabad, Bishkek. The 2-stage examinations gave evidence for growing severity of atherosclerosis. Risk factor analysis demonstrated an increase in the percentage of males with diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension, in the percentage of overweight males and of those with atherosclerosis engaged in mental work. It is found that atherosclerosis undergoes changes within the life of one generation (for 20-25 years).
This study examined the differential effect of age on coping and psychological measures among immigrants from Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to Israel. Some of these immigrants originated in the Republics adjacent to the Chernobyl Power Plant, site of the 1986 accident. The sample consisted of 708 immigrants who were interviewed between the years 1993-1995 with an average age of 47.5 (sd 11.8). This sample was reinterviewed approximately a year and three months later (n = 520). The sample included two exposure groups--high exposed and low exposed based on the estimated levels of ground cesium contamination from the IAEA maps and a comparison group matched by age, gender, and year of immigration. Those over the age of sixty-five were disadvantaged, compared to those aged fifty to sixty-four, and younger, when it came to the tasks of immigrant absorption; learning the language, working and acquiring an income, and establishing alternative social networks which could offer support in times of illness. The psychological variables showed that over time, somatization, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to Chernobyl improved, however at a much slower pace for older immigrants (aged 55 and over) compared to younger ones.
The article deals with causes of occupational diseases (including those due to complex factors) among miners in Far North and other regions of CIS. The authors present main principles for more healthy work conditions with considerations of climate surroundings.
AIMS: To provide accurate and timely data on the determinants of smoking in countries of the former Soviet Union in order to facilitate the development of effective tobacco control policies in the region. Such data are urgently needed given the absence of accurate comparative data in the region and the recent changes experienced. DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys using standardized methods and representative samples of the adult population in eight former Soviet Union countries conducted as part of the EU-Copernicus Project Living Conditions, Lifestyle, and Health study. SETTING: Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 18 428 adults aged 18 plus; response rates 71-88%. MEASUREMENTS: The association of smoking with demographic and socio-economic factors was investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses, stratifying by gender. FINDINGS: Age was a strong determinant of smoking in both genders, with elderly individuals being less likely to smoke. Men who were more socially disadvantaged (less educated, poorer economic situation and/or less social support) were more likely to smoke. In women, living in larger urban areas was the strongest predictor of smoking. Divorced, separated or widowed women were also more likely to smoke than married women. Muslim respondents smoked less frequently compared with other respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a major public health issue in the FSU particularly affecting socially vulnerable men and young women living in urbanized areas. These high-risk groups should be targeted in future smoking prevention and cessation strategies in the region.