To determine whether sales statistics for riluzole can be used as a marker for the prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/motor neuron disease (MND) in Sweden.
A questionnaire was sent to all neurological units in Sweden asking about the numbers of patients with ALS/MND and whether these patients were treated with riluzole. Sales statistics for riluzole were obtained from the 906 public pharmacies and 89 hospital pharmacies in Sweden.
Eighty percent of the neurological units answered the questionnaire. The estimated prevalence in September 2003 from the questionnaire was 5.4/100,000 inhabitants. The sales expressed in defined daily dose/100,000 inhabitants/day was 3.8. For the counties the correlation between these two parameters was 0.83.
Estimated prevalence is highly correlated with sales statistics for riluzole. Riluzole sales statistics could be used as a crude marker for the prevalence of ALS/MND in Sweden.
Antibacterial Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli from Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in the Faroe Islands, Associations with Antibacterial Sales, and Comparison with Iceland and Denmark.
Currently, data on Escherichia coli antibacterial susceptibilities in the Faroe Islands are lacking. The aim was to investigate the antibacterial susceptibilities of E. coli from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections in the Faroe Islands, correlate with antibacterial sales, and compare with Iceland and Denmark. From 2009 to 2010 and in 2012, 12 general practitioners from the Faroe Islands were recruited to provide urine samples from patients. Antibacterial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods and criteria. Logistic regression (quasibinomial) of the antibacterial resistance proportions versus mean sales during the period of 2008-2011 was used to determine association. Nonsusceptibility to at least 1 of the 14 antibacterial drugs investigated was found in 54% of the E. coli isolates and was most common to ampicillin (46%), followed by sulfamethoxazole (39%), trimethoprim (27%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%), and
Although the sociodemographic characteristics of food-insecure households have been well documented, there has been little examination of neighbourhood characteristics in relation to this problem. In the present study we examined the association between household food security and neighbourhood features including geographic food access and perceived neighbourhood social capital.
Cross-sectional survey and mapping of discount supermarkets and community food programmes.
Twelve high-poverty neighbourhoods in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Respondents from 484 low-income families who had children and who lived in rental accommodations.
Food insecurity was pervasive, affecting two-thirds of families with about a quarter categorized as severely food insecure, indicative of food deprivation. Food insecurity was associated with household factors including income and income source. However, food security did not appear to be mitigated by proximity to food retail or community food programmes, and high rates of food insecurity were observed in neighbourhoods with good geographic food access. While low perceived neighbourhood social capital was associated with higher odds of food insecurity, this effect did not persist once we accounted for household sociodemographic factors.
Our findings raise questions about the extent to which neighbourhood-level interventions to improve factors such as food access or social cohesion can mitigate problems of food insecurity that are rooted in resource constraints. In contrast, the results reinforce the importance of household-level characteristics and highlight the need for interventions to address the financial constraints that underlie problems of food insecurity.
The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada.
Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics.
In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students.
The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.
Recent research evidence suggests that the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverage may have a differential effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and CVD mortality rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods.
Age-standardized male and female CVD mortality data for the period 1970-2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat). Time-series analytical modeling techniques (ARIMA) were used to examine the relation between the sales of different alcoholic beverages and CVD mortality rates.
Vodka consumption as measured by sales was significantly associated with both male and female CVD mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in vodka sales would result in a 5.3% increase in the male CVD mortality rate and a 3.7% increase in the female rate. The consumption of beer and wine were not associated with CVD mortality rates.
The findings from this study suggest that public health efforts should focus on both reducing overall consumption and changing beverage preference away from distilled spirits in order to reduce cardiovascular mortality rates in Russia.
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High violent mortality rate in Russia and its profound fluctuation over recent decades have attracted considerable interest. A mounting body of evidence points to the binge drinking pattern as a potentially important contributor to the violent mortality crisis in Russia. In line with this evidence, we assume that higher level of vodka consumption in conjunction with binge drinking pattern results in close aggregate-level association between vodka sales and violent mortality rates in Russia.
To test this hypothesis, trends in beverage-specific alcohol sales per capita and mortality rates from external causes in Russia between 1980 and 2005 were analyzed by means of ARIMA time-series analysis.
Results of the analysis indicate that violent mortality rates tend to be more responsive to change in vodka sales per capita than to change in total level of alcohol sales. The analysis suggests that a 1-litre increase in vodka sales per capita would result in a 5% increase in violent mortality rate, an 11.3% increase in accidents and injuries mortality rate, a 9.2% increase in suicide rate, a 12.5% increase in homicide rate, and a 21.9% increase in fatal alcohol poisoning rate.
The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol played a crucial role in the fluctuation in violent mortality rate in Russia in recent decades. Assuming that drinking vodka is usually associated with intoxication episodes, these findings provide additional evidence that the binge drinking pattern is an important determinant of the violent mortality crisis in Russia.
Alcohol habits in Sweden, assessed as sales and estimates of unrecorded consumption, have changed since joining the EU. Earlier studies using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) showed that reported consumption is consistent with sales data, which makes it possible to assess consumption according to sex and age.
This study reports the changes in alcohol habits between 2009 and 2014, a period starting a couple of years after Sweden joined the EU.
The AUDIT was sent to a random sample of the Swedish population aged between 17 and 80 years old.
No statistically significant changes were shown in six age and sex groups.
Alcohol habits have stabilised in Sweden but on a higher consumption level than before.
To investigate the independent effects on liquor sales of an increase in (a) the density of liquor outlets and (b) the proportion of liquor stores in private rather than government ownership in British Columbia between 2003/4 and 2007/8.
The British Columbia Liquor Distribution Branch provided data on litres of ethanol sold through different types of outlets in 89 local health areas of the province by beverage type. Multi-level regression models were used to examine the relationship between per capita alcohol sales and outlet densities for different types of liquor outlet after adjusting for potential confounding social, economic and demographic factors as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation.
Liquor outlets in 89 local health areas of British Columbia, Canada.
The number of private stores per 10,000 residents was associated significantly and positively with per capita sales of ethanol in beer, coolers, spirits and wine, while the reverse held for government liquor stores. Significant positive effects were also identified for the number of bars and restaurants per head of population. The percentage of liquor stores in private versus government ownership was also associated significantly with per capita alcohol sales when controlling for density of liquor stores and of on-premise outlets (P
Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV in Gatineau, Quebec, to identify areas where poor access is coincident with high deprivation.
Food retailers were identified using two secondary sources and each store was visited to establish the total surface area devoted to the sale of fresh FV. Four population-weighted accessibility measures were then calculated for each dissemination area (DA) using road network distances. A deprivation index was created using variables from the 2006 Statistics Canada census, also at the scale of the DA. Finally, six classes of accessibility to a healthy diet were constructed using a k-means classification procedure. These were mapped and superimposed over high deprivation areas.
Overall, deprivation is positively correlated with better accessibility. However, more than 18,000 residents (7.5% of the population) live in high deprivation areas characterized by large distances to the nearest retail food store (means of 1.4 km or greater) and virtually no access to fresh FV within walking distance (radius of 1 km).
In this research, we identified areas where poor geographic access may introduce an additional constraint for residents already dealing with the challenges of limited financial and social resources. Our results may help guide local food security policies and initiatives.