Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League.
A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among?=?4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (=200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (= 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (= 200 attempts).
There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to reduce alcohol-related problems at sporting events, and it is essential to test prevention strategies to reduce intoxication levels among spectators. This project makes an important contribution not only to the research community, but also to enabling public health officials, decision-makers, authorities, the general public, and the sports community, to implement appropriate evidence-based strategies.
Cites: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Apr 1;129(1-2):110-523102731
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At the beginning of October 1999, a Toronto man who owned an escort agency went to trial in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice on numerous charges of living off the avails of prostitution and procuring for the purpose of prostitution. On the first day of trial, the prosecutor indicated he would be introducing evidence suggesting that three of the women who worked as escorts for Mark Lucacko's agency may be HIV-positive.
To analyse attitudes towards sales and use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the Swedish adult population.
Data were collected through the web-based Citizen Panel comprising 21 000 Swedes. A stratified sample of 4058 participants was emailed a survey invitation. Questions concerned use of OTC drugs, and attitudes towards sales and use of OTC drugs. Correlations between the attitudinal statements were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation. Associations between attitudes and participant characteristics were analysed using multinomial logistic regression.
Participation rate was 64%. Altogether 87% reported use of OTC drugs in the last 6 months. Approximately 10% of participants stated that they used OTC drugs at the first sign of illness, and 9% stated that they used more OTC drugs compared with previously, due to increased availability. The statement on use of OTC drugs at first sign of illness correlated with the statement about using more OTC drugs with increased availability. Socio-demographic factors (age, sex and education) and frequent use of OTC drugs were associated with attitudes to sales and use of OTC drugs.
Increased use due to greater availability, in combination with OTC drug use at first sign of illness illustrates the need for continuous education of the population about self-care with OTC drugs. Increased awareness of the incautious views on OTC drugs in part of the population is important. Swedish policy-makers may use such knowledge in their continuous evaluation of the 2009 pharmacy reform to review the impact of sales of OTC drugs in retail outlets on patient safety and public health. Pharmacy and healthcare staff could be more proactive in asking customers and patients about their use of OTC drugs and offering them advice.
The high suicide rate in Russia and its profound fluctuation over the past decades have attracted considerable interest. There is growing evidence that beverage preference and binge-drinking patterns, i.e., excessive consumption of strong spirits, results in a quicker and deeper level of intoxication, which increases the propensity for the alcohol-related suicide. In line with this evidence, we assumed that higher levels of vodka consumption, in conjunction with binge-drinking patterns, would result in a close, aggregate-level association between vodka sales and suicide in Russia.
To test this hypothesis, trends in beverage-specific alcohol sales per capita and suicide rates from 1970 to 2005 in Russia were analyzed employing ARIMA time-series analysis.
The results of the time-series analysis suggested that a 1 liter increase in overall alcohol sales would result in a 4% increase in the male suicide rate and a 2.8% increase in the female suicide rate; a 1 liter increase in vodka sales would increase the suicide rate by 9.3% for men and by 6% for women.
This study replicates previous findings from other settings, which suggest that suicide rates tend to be more responsive to changes in distilled spirits consumption per capita than to the total level of alcohol consumption. Assuming that drinking spirits is usually associated with intoxication episodes, these findings provide additional evidence that the drinking pattern is an important determinant in the relationship between alcohol and suicide. The outcomes of this study also provide support for the hypothesis that suicide and alcohol are closely connected in cultures where an intoxication-oriented drinking pattern prevails and adds to the growing body of evidence that alcohol plays a crucial role in the fluctuation in suicide mortality rates in Russia during recent decades.
OBJECTIVE: Caffeine is widely available in beverages and in different over-the-counter products, including tablets containing 100 mg caffeine. Because intentional fatal intoxications with caffeine occur, the maximum quantity of caffeine tablets that can be bought over the counter in a single purchase was restricted from 250 to 30 in Sweden in the year 2004. The objective of this article was to study the effect of this decision on the number of fatal caffeine intoxications. METHOD: In Sweden 95% of all cases undergoing forensic autopsy are screened for a number of drugs including caffeine. All cases during January 1993-September 2009 with a caffeine concentration above 80 microg/g blood were recorded. RESULTS: During the study period toxicological investigations were performed in 83,580 forensic autopsies. Caffeine contributed to the fatal outcome in 20 cases (0.02%). Thirteen (65%) of these fatalities occurred before the introduction of the sales restriction. However, no fatal intoxications where caffeine contributed to the cause of death was recorded between May 2007 and September 2009. CONCLUSION: Overdoses of tablets containing caffeine can be fatal, suicides as well as accidents occur. Restricting the maximum quantity of caffeine tablets available over the counter seemed to be effective in preventing suicides because of caffeine although some time elapsed until the effect was noted. Further monitoring is required to ensure that the observed lower caffeine mortality is a sustained effect.
In response to high prescription drug prices in the United States, several services have attempted to make prescription drugs available directly from Canadian pharmacies, which often can sell the drugs at a significantly cheaper price. Normally, a patient must have his physician become directly involved in this process in order to import the drugs from Canada. Although it is understandable for a physician to want to help a patient in this manner, there are several potential risks for an Oklahoma physician participating in these programs. In addition, there is significant risk the patient may not be getting the drugs prescribed.