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Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285143
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Jun 06;16:471
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-06-2016
Author
Natalie Durbeej
Tobias H Elgán
Camilla Jalling
Johanna Gripenberg
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Jun 06;16:471
Date
Jun-06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - prevention & control
Alcoholic Intoxication - prevention & control
Commerce - legislation & jurisprudence
Control Groups
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Licensure
Male
Middle Aged
Sports
Sweden
Violence - prevention & control
Abstract
Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League.
A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among?=?4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (=200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (= 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (= 200 attempts).
There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to reduce alcohol-related problems at sporting events, and it is essential to test prevention strategies to reduce intoxication levels among spectators. This project makes an important contribution not only to the research community, but also to enabling public health officials, decision-makers, authorities, the general public, and the sports community, to implement appropriate evidence-based strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27267058 View in PubMed
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Allegations of HIV infection raised in criminal trial of escort agency owner.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191298
Source
Can HIV AIDS Policy Law Newsl. 1999 Fall-1999 Winter;5(1):17, 19-20
Publication Type
Article
Author
R. Elliott
Source
Can HIV AIDS Policy Law Newsl. 1999 Fall-1999 Winter;5(1):17, 19-20
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Commerce - legislation & jurisprudence
Criminal Law
Female
HIV Infections
Humans
Male
Ontario
Prostitution - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
At the beginning of October 1999, a Toronto man who owned an escort agency went to trial in the Ontario Superior Court of Justice on numerous charges of living off the avails of prostitution and procuring for the purpose of prostitution. On the first day of trial, the prosecutor indicated he would be introducing evidence suggesting that three of the women who worked as escorts for Mark Lucacko's agency may be HIV-positive.
PubMed ID
11868553 View in PubMed
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Attitudes towards sales and use of over-the-counter drugs in Sweden in a reregulated pharmacy market: a population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300209
Source
Int J Pharm Pract. 2019 Feb; 27(1):17-24
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2019
Author
Tove Hedenrud
Karolina Andersson Sundell
Johan Martinsson
Helle Håkonsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
Int J Pharm Pract. 2019 Feb; 27(1):17-24
Date
Feb-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Commerce - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Community Pharmacy Services - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nonprescription Drugs - economics
Patient Education as Topic
Pharmacies - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Self Medication - economics - statistics & numerical data
Surveys and Questionnaires - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
To analyse attitudes towards sales and use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the Swedish adult population.
Data were collected through the web-based Citizen Panel comprising 21 000 Swedes. A stratified sample of 4058 participants was emailed a survey invitation. Questions concerned use of OTC drugs, and attitudes towards sales and use of OTC drugs. Correlations between the attitudinal statements were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation. Associations between attitudes and participant characteristics were analysed using multinomial logistic regression.
Participation rate was 64%. Altogether 87% reported use of OTC drugs in the last 6 months. Approximately 10% of participants stated that they used OTC drugs at the first sign of illness, and 9% stated that they used more OTC drugs compared with previously, due to increased availability. The statement on use of OTC drugs at first sign of illness correlated with the statement about using more OTC drugs with increased availability. Socio-demographic factors (age, sex and education) and frequent use of OTC drugs were associated with attitudes to sales and use of OTC drugs.
Increased use due to greater availability, in combination with OTC drug use at first sign of illness illustrates the need for continuous education of the population about self-care with OTC drugs. Increased awareness of the incautious views on OTC drugs in part of the population is important. Swedish policy-makers may use such knowledge in their continuous evaluation of the 2009 pharmacy reform to review the impact of sales of OTC drugs in retail outlets on patient safety and public health. Pharmacy and healthcare staff could be more proactive in asking customers and patients about their use of OTC drugs and offering them advice.
PubMed ID
29687513 View in PubMed
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Beverage-specific alcohol sale and suicide in Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147205
Source
Crisis. 2009;30(4):186-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Y E Razvodovsky
Author Affiliation
Grodno State Medical University, Belarus. yury_razvodovsky@mail.ru
Source
Crisis. 2009;30(4):186-91
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - ethnology - prevention & control - trends
Alcoholic Beverages - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Alcoholic Intoxication - complications - ethnology - prevention & control
Cause of Death
Commerce - legislation & jurisprudence - trends
Female
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence - trends
Humans
International Classification of Diseases
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Sex Distribution
Social Change
Suicide - ethnology - prevention & control - trends
Abstract
The high suicide rate in Russia and its profound fluctuation over the past decades have attracted considerable interest. There is growing evidence that beverage preference and binge-drinking patterns, i.e., excessive consumption of strong spirits, results in a quicker and deeper level of intoxication, which increases the propensity for the alcohol-related suicide. In line with this evidence, we assumed that higher levels of vodka consumption, in conjunction with binge-drinking patterns, would result in a close, aggregate-level association between vodka sales and suicide in Russia.
To test this hypothesis, trends in beverage-specific alcohol sales per capita and suicide rates from 1970 to 2005 in Russia were analyzed employing ARIMA time-series analysis.
The results of the time-series analysis suggested that a 1 liter increase in overall alcohol sales would result in a 4% increase in the male suicide rate and a 2.8% increase in the female suicide rate; a 1 liter increase in vodka sales would increase the suicide rate by 9.3% for men and by 6% for women.
This study replicates previous findings from other settings, which suggest that suicide rates tend to be more responsive to changes in distilled spirits consumption per capita than to the total level of alcohol consumption. Assuming that drinking spirits is usually associated with intoxication episodes, these findings provide additional evidence that the drinking pattern is an important determinant in the relationship between alcohol and suicide. The outcomes of this study also provide support for the hypothesis that suicide and alcohol are closely connected in cultures where an intoxication-oriented drinking pattern prevails and adds to the growing body of evidence that alcohol plays a crucial role in the fluctuation in suicide mortality rates in Russia during recent decades.
PubMed ID
19933064 View in PubMed
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Caffeine fatalities--do sales restrictions prevent intentional intoxications?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97969
Source
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 May;48(4):354-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Gunilla Thelander
Anna Kristina Jönsson
Mark Personne
Gunilla Sjölin Forsberg
Kristina Magnusson Lundqvist
Johan Ahlner
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, The National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 May;48(4):354-8
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Caffeine - blood - economics - poisoning
Central Nervous System Stimulants - economics - poisoning
Commerce - legislation & jurisprudence
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Overdose - mortality - prevention & control
Substance-Related Disorders - mortality
Suicide - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Caffeine is widely available in beverages and in different over-the-counter products, including tablets containing 100 mg caffeine. Because intentional fatal intoxications with caffeine occur, the maximum quantity of caffeine tablets that can be bought over the counter in a single purchase was restricted from 250 to 30 in Sweden in the year 2004. The objective of this article was to study the effect of this decision on the number of fatal caffeine intoxications. METHOD: In Sweden 95% of all cases undergoing forensic autopsy are screened for a number of drugs including caffeine. All cases during January 1993-September 2009 with a caffeine concentration above 80 microg/g blood were recorded. RESULTS: During the study period toxicological investigations were performed in 83,580 forensic autopsies. Caffeine contributed to the fatal outcome in 20 cases (0.02%). Thirteen (65%) of these fatalities occurred before the introduction of the sales restriction. However, no fatal intoxications where caffeine contributed to the cause of death was recorded between May 2007 and September 2009. CONCLUSION: Overdoses of tablets containing caffeine can be fatal, suicides as well as accidents occur. Restricting the maximum quantity of caffeine tablets available over the counter seemed to be effective in preventing suicides because of caffeine although some time elapsed until the effect was noted. Further monitoring is required to ensure that the observed lower caffeine mortality is a sustained effect.
PubMed ID
20170393 View in PubMed
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Canadian prescription drug importation programs contain risks for Oklahoma physicians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190566
Source
J Okla State Med Assoc. 2002 Apr;95(4):275
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2002
Author
Linda G Scoggins
Byron K Linkous
Source
J Okla State Med Assoc. 2002 Apr;95(4):275
Date
Apr-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Commerce - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration
Drug and Narcotic Control
Humans
International Cooperation
Liability, Legal
Malpractice
Oklahoma
Pharmaceutical Services - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration
United States
Abstract
In response to high prescription drug prices in the United States, several services have attempted to make prescription drugs available directly from Canadian pharmacies, which often can sell the drugs at a significantly cheaper price. Normally, a patient must have his physician become directly involved in this process in order to import the drugs from Canada. Although it is understandable for a physician to want to help a patient in this manner, there are several potential risks for an Oklahoma physician participating in these programs. In addition, there is significant risk the patient may not be getting the drugs prescribed.
PubMed ID
11957847 View in PubMed
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78 records – page 1 of 8.