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Asbestos poisons World Trade Organization atmosphere.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193231
Source
Int J Health Serv. 2001;31(3):481-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
L. Kazan-Allen
Source
Int J Health Serv. 2001;31(3):481-93
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos, Serpentine - economics - poisoning - supply & distribution
Canada
Commerce - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Conflict of Interest
Disclosure
Employment
Environmental Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
European Union
France
Humans
International Agencies - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
International Cooperation
Politics
Abstract
In September 2000, a World Trade Organization (WTO) panel published its findings in the dispute between Canada and the European Union/France over France's ban on the import and use of chrysotile (white asbestos). The panel upheld the French ban, established that the use of chrysotile is a health risk and the idea of "controlled use" a fallacy, and used (for the first time) an exception clause in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that permits trade-restrictive measures to protect human life or health. At the same time, the panel concluded that the French ban violated international trade laws by treating chrysotile products less favorably than domestically produced alternatives. Some WTO watchers believe that with asbestos as the precedent for bans on toxic substances, the regulation of other, much less well-established, toxic exposures could prove much more difficult. Now the French ban has been upheld, chrysotile producers will increasingly target developing countries. Canada is appealing the WTO decision.
PubMed ID
11562001 View in PubMed
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Changes in alcohol availability, price and alcohol-related problems and the collectivity of drinking cultures: what happened in southern and northern Sweden?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141257
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2010 Sep-Oct;45(5):456-67
Publication Type
Article
Author
Nina-Katri Gustafsson
Author Affiliation
Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), Sveaplan, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. nina-katri.gustafsson@sorad.su.se
Source
Alcohol Alcohol. 2010 Sep-Oct;45(5):456-67
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking - economics - ethnology
Alcoholic Beverages - economics
Alcoholism - economics - ethnology
Commerce - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Cross-Sectional Studies - methods
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic - methods
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Random Allocation
Sweden - ethnology
Taxes - economics
Young Adult
Abstract
The aims of this study were to study whether alcohol-related self-reported problems follow the same pattern of changes in alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, assumed to be affected by a decrease in Danish spirits tax and by an increase in Swedish travellers' import quotas, and to study whether the results obtained for southern and northern Sweden follow the predictions of Skog's theory of collectivity of drinking cultures.
Analysis was carried out on a sample from the Swedish general population from southern and northern Sweden separately. Two indices such as impaired self-control/dependent behaviour and extrinsic problems for alcohol-related problems were computed and analysed in terms of sex, age, income and alcohol consumption level.
Although there were no huge changes in the number of persons reporting alcohol-related problems, the general trend in data for various subpopulations was a decrease in the southern site and an increase in the northern site. In the northern site, the increase in alcohol consumption among men also showed an increase in alcohol-related problems. However, various population subgroups changed in different directions and did not move in concert over the population distribution.
Analysis confirmed that alcohol-related problems, according to the two indices used, followed a similar pattern to alcohol consumption, but less divergent. A version of Skog's theory applied on alcohol-related problems could not confirm that alcohol-related problems did not change collectively within the population.
Notes
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Comment In: Alcohol Alcohol. 2010 Sep-Oct;45(5):468-920739443
PubMed ID
20739440 View in PubMed
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Changes in alcohol consumption patterns following the introduction of credit cards in Ontario liquor stores.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201810
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 1999 May;60(3):378-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1999
Author
S A Macdonald
S L Wells
N. Giesbrecht
P M West
Author Affiliation
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Addiction Research Foundation Division, London, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Stud Alcohol. 1999 May;60(3):378-82
Date
May-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - economics - epidemiology - psychology
Alcoholic Beverages - economics - statistics & numerical data
Commerce - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
In 1994, regulatory changes were introduced in Ontario, Canada, permitting the purchase of alcoholic beverages with credit cards at government-operated liquor stores. Two objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the characteristics of credit card shoppers with non credit card shoppers at liquor stores, and (2) to assess whether changes occurred in alcohol consumption patterns among shoppers following the introduction of credit cards.
Random digit dialing was used to interview 2,039 telephone participants prior to the introduction of credit cards (Time 1); 1,401 of these subjects were contacted 1 year later (Time 2). Independent sample t tests were used to compare credit card shoppers with shoppers not using credit cards, and paired t tests were performed to assess whether drinking behaviors changed from Time 1 to Time 2.
The credit card shoppers were more likely than the non credit card shoppers to be highly educated (p
PubMed ID
10371266 View in PubMed
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The economic impact of a smoke-free bylaw on restaurant and bar sales in Ottawa, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169470
Source
Addiction. 2006 May;101(5):738-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2006
Author
Rita Luk
Roberta Ferrence
Gerhard Gmel
Author Affiliation
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, University of Toronto, Canada. rita_luk@camh.net
Source
Addiction. 2006 May;101(5):738-45
Date
May-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Beverages - economics
Commerce - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Constitution and Bylaws
Humans
Local Government
Ontario
Restaurants - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Smoking - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Abstract
On 1 August 2001, the City of Ottawa (Canada's Capital) implemented a smoke-free bylaw that completely prohibited smoking in work-places and public places, including restaurants and bars, with no exemption for separately ventilated smoking rooms. This paper evaluates the effects of this bylaw on restaurant and bar sales. DATA AND MEASURES: We used retail sales tax data from March 1998 to June 2002 to construct two outcome measures: the ratio of licensed restaurant and bar sales to total retail sales and the ratio of unlicensed restaurant sales to total retail sales. Restaurant and bar sales were subtracted from total retail sales in the denominator of these measures.
We employed an interrupted time-series design. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) intervention analysis was used to test for three possible impacts that the bylaw might have on the sales of restaurants and bars. We repeated the analysis using regression with autoregressive moving average (ARMA) errors method to triangulate our results.
Outcome measures showed declining trends at baseline before the bylaw went into effect. Results from ARIMA intervention and regression analyses did not support the hypotheses that the smoke-free bylaw had an impact that resulted in (1) abrupt permanent, (2) gradual permanent or (3) abrupt temporary changes in restaurant and bar sales.
While a large body of research has found no significant adverse impact of smoke-free legislation on restaurant and bar sales in the United States, Australia and elsewhere, our study confirms these results in a northern region with a bilingual population, which has important implications for impending policy in Europe and other areas.
PubMed ID
16669908 View in PubMed
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Effect of deregulation on the prices of nicotine replacement therapy products in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159274
Source
Health Policy. 2008 May;86(2-3):355-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Ville Aalto-Setälä
Antti Alaranta
Author Affiliation
National Consumer Research Centre, P.O. Box 5, FI-00531, Helsinki, Finland. ville.aaltosetala@gmail.com
Source
Health Policy. 2008 May;86(2-3):355-62
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Commerce - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Female
Finland
Government Regulation
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nicotine - therapeutic use
Nicotinic Agonists - therapeutic use
Smoking Cessation - economics
Abstract
The sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products were deregulated in Finland in February 2006. Previously all medications were sold only in pharmacies, and retail mark-ups and prices were fixed; following deregulation pricing of NRT products has been free. Further more, grocery shops, petrol stations and kiosks are now licensed to sell NRT products. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of deregulation on prices of NRT products.
We utilized price data on NRT products (n=2106) from pharmacies, grocery shops, kiosks and petrol stations. Market prices are compared with former regulated prices, as are the prices at different types of outlets. We examined the relationship between competition and prices by regression analysis.
The average price of NRT products decreased 15% after deregulation. About half of the price decrease was due to exemption of NRT products from the pharmacy fee as part of deregulation, and the other half to increased competition. The least expensive NRT products are obtainable in hypermarkets; however, pharmacies have the largest variety.
Deregulation of NRT products in Finland was successful in that the prices of these products have decreased and their availability increased. Based on international experience, however, it is not clear whether these decreased prices and increased availabilities have increased smoking cessation.
PubMed ID
18207603 View in PubMed
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Estimating the economic value of British Columbia's domestic cannabis market: implications for provincial cannabis policy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119626
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2012 Nov;23(6):436-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Dan Werb
Bohdan Nosyk
Thomas Kerr
Benedikt Fischer
Julio Montaner
Evan Wood
Author Affiliation
BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2012 Nov;23(6):436-41
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Cannabis
Commerce - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Computer simulation
Crime - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Drug and Narcotic Control - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Government Regulation
Humans
Law Enforcement
Marijuana Smoking - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Models, Econometric
Monte Carlo Method
Policy Making
Public Policy - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Street Drugs - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - supply & distribution
Uncertainty
Abstract
British Columbia (BC), Canada, is home to a large illegal cannabis industry that is known to contribute to substantial organized crime concerns. Although debates have emerged regarding the potential benefits of a legally regulated market to address a range of drug policy-related social problems, the value of the local (i.e., domestically consumed) cannabis market has not been characterized.
Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to generate a median value and 95% credibility interval for retail expenditure estimates of the domestic cannabis market in BC. Model parameter estimates were obtained for the number of cannabis users, the frequency of cannabis use, the quantity of cannabis used, and the price of cannabis from government surveillance data and studies of BC cannabis users.
The median annual estimated retail expenditure on cannabis by British Columbians was $407 million (95% Credibility Interval [CI]: $169-948 million). Daily users accounted for the bulk of the cannabis revenue, with a median estimated expenditure of approximately $357 million (95% CI: $149-845 million), followed by weekly users ($44 million, 95% CI: $18-90 million), and monthly users ($6 million, 95% CI: $3-12 million). When under-reporting of cannabis use was adjusted for, the estimated retail expenditure ranged from $443 million (95% CI: $185-1 billion) to $564 million (95% CI: $236-1.3 billion).
Based on local consumption patterns, conservative estimates suggest that BC's domestic illegal cannabis trade is worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Given the value of this market and the failure and harms of law enforcement efforts to control the cannabis market, policymakers should consider regulatory alternatives.
PubMed ID
23085258 View in PubMed
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Four barriers and a set of values that prevent violence among cannabis growers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267599
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Mar;26(3):290-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Eirik Hammersvik
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Mar;26(3):290-5
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cannabis - growth & development
Commerce - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Conflict (Psychology)
Criminals - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Cultural Characteristics
Drug Trafficking - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Drug and Narcotic Control
Friends
Humans
Income
Interpersonal Relations
Interviews as Topic
Norway
Policy Making
Social Behavior
Violence - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - psychology
Abstract
Cannabis markets are often described as less violent than other drug markets. Domestic cannabis cultivation markets seem to be especially non-violent. However, few studies have investigated why this might be.
Two and half years of ethnographic fieldwork among indoor cannabis growers and interviews and conversations with 52 growers in Norway.
This study identified four barriers and a set of values that prevent violence among growers. (1) Violence attracts increased attention from police and enemies, which inhibits 'business as usual' and reduces profits. (2) Careful attention to profits makes growers calculate and prepare for financial losses. (3) The prospect of covering debt by producing more cannabis makes it possible to choose non-violent sanctions. (4) Tight social ties and friendships prevent violence when conflicts erupt. However, the cannabis culture of the actors and the transactions stands out as the main reason why these four barriers are more important in cannabis markets than in other drug markets.
This paper discusses how policymakers can benefit from the market changes that follow 'import substitution' to construct policies that prevent violence and facilitate peaceful drug markets and drug cultures.
PubMed ID
25239285 View in PubMed
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Parallel imports and the pricing of pharmaceutical products: evidence from the European Union.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178525
Source
J Health Econ. 2004 Sep;23(5):1035-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Mattias Ganslandt
Keith E Maskus
Author Affiliation
The Research Institute of Industrial Economics, P.O. Box 5501, SE-11485 Stockholm, Sweden. mattias.ganslandt@iui.se
Source
J Health Econ. 2004 Sep;23(5):1035-57
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Commerce - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Drug Costs
Drug Industry - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Economic Competition
Economics, Pharmaceutical
Europe
European Union
Humans
Internationality
Legislation, Drug
Models, Econometric
Sweden
Abstract
We consider policy issues regarding parallel imports (PIs) of brand-name pharmaceuticals in the European Union, where such trade is permitted. We develop a simple model in which an original manufacturer competes in its home market with PI firms. The model suggests that for small trade costs the original manufacturer will accommodate the import decisions of parallel traders and that the price in the home market falls as the volume of parallel imports rises. Using data from Sweden we find that the prices of drugs subject to competition from parallel imports fell relative to other drugs over the period 1994-1999. Econometric analysis finds that parallel imports significantly reduced manufacturing prices, by 12-19%. There is evidence that this effect increases with multiple PI entrants.
PubMed ID
15353192 View in PubMed
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Potential consequences of replacing a retail alcohol monopoly with a private licence system: results from Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141095
Source
Addiction. 2010 Dec;105(12):2113-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Thor Norström
Ted Miller
Harold Holder
Esa Osterberg
Mats Ramstedt
Ingeborg Rossow
Tim Stockwell
Author Affiliation
Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. thor.norstrom@sofi.su.se
Source
Addiction. 2010 Dec;105(12):2113-9
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Advertising as Topic - legislation & jurisprudence
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - mortality - trends
Alcoholic Beverages - economics - statistics & numerical data - supply & distribution
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Commerce - economics - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Economic Competition - trends
Female
Forecasting
Humans
Licensure
Male
Models, Theoretical
Privatization
Sick Leave - trends
Social Problems - trends
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
To examine the potential effects of replacing the Swedish alcohol retail system with a private licensing system on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.
Two possible scenarios were analysed: (1) replacing the current alcohol retail monopoly with private licensed stores that specialize in alcohol sales or (2) making all alcohol available in grocery stores. We utilized a multiplicative model that projected effects of changes in a set of key factors including hours of sale, retail prices, promotion and advertising and outlet density. Next, we estimated the effect of the projected consumption increase on a set of harm indicators. Values for the model parameters were obtained from the research literature.
Measures of alcohol-related harm included explicitly alcohol-related mortality, accident mortality, suicide, homicide, assaults, drinking driving and sickness absence.
According to the projections, scenario 1 yields a consumption increase of 17% (1.4 litres/capita), which in turn would cause an additional 770 deaths, 8500 assaults, 2700 drinking driving offences and 4.5 million sick days per year. The corresponding figures for scenario 2 are a consumption increase of 37.4% (3.1 litres/capita) leading to an additional annual toll of 2000 deaths, 20 000 assaults, 6600 drinking driving offences and 11.1 million days of sick leave.
Projections based on the research literature suggest that privatization of the Swedish alcohol retail market would significantly increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.
PubMed ID
20809914 View in PubMed
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14 records – page 1 of 2.