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498 records – page 1 of 50.

The 16% solution and other mysteries concerning the accuracy of alcohol consumption estimates based on sales data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature247149
Source
Br J Addict Alcohol Other Drugs. 1979 Jun;74(2):165-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1979
Author
E. Single
N. Giesbrecht
Source
Br J Addict Alcohol Other Drugs. 1979 Jun;74(2):165-73
Date
Jun-1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking
Alcoholic Beverages
Commerce
Drug Utilization
Humans
Ontario
Records as Topic
Wine
PubMed ID
287509 View in PubMed
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[About health care profit: USA is not a model!].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161515
Source
Lakartidningen. 2007 Aug 8-21;104(32-33):2263
Publication Type
Article
Author
Bror Gårdelöf
Author Affiliation
Bror.Gardelov@lio.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 2007 Aug 8-21;104(32-33):2263
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Commerce
Health Policy - economics
Health Services - economics
Humans
Insurance, Health - economics
Private Sector
Sweden
United States
Notes
Comment On: Lakartidningen. 2007 Jul 11-24;104(28-29):2091-217702384
PubMed ID
17822208 View in PubMed
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[Acceptance of van Swieten's liquor in Japan]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9759
Source
Nippon Ishigaku Zasshi. 2002 Dec;48(4):575-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
Fumi Takahashi
Source
Nippon Ishigaku Zasshi. 2002 Dec;48(4):575-95
Date
Dec-2002
Language
Japanese
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohols - history
Austria
Commerce - history
English Abstract
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Japan
Mercury - history
Prescriptions, Drug - history
Sweden
Syphilis - history
Abstract
Carl Peter Thunberg, a Swedish medical doctor and botanist who visited Japan in 1775 as a medical doctor attached to the Dutch Trade House in Dejima, Nagasaki, taught the treatment of syphilis using mercury water to Japanese doctors and interpreters. This therapy is based on the oral administration of a 0.014% solution of mercuric chloride and was published in 1754 by Gerard van Swieten in Vienna, who questioned the utility of the conventional salivation therapy. The dose was set taking safety into account. Kogyu Yoshio, a Japanese-Dutch interpreter, had already read about it in a book written by J. J. Plenck, when he was taught about the therapy by Thunberg. He recorded Thunberg's teachings in his book "Komohijiki", presenting details of various formulations, including a high-dose formulation. The mercury therapy was subsequently spread across the country by medical doctors who learned Western medicine through the Dutch. In the 1820's, Genshin Udagawa, who read a number of Western medical books, published books on Western drugs. In these books, G. Udagawa included precise information on "Swieten Yakushu-hu (medicated alcohol)", including information on the dosage, formulation, mode of usage, and precautions for use. The maximum dose of mercuric chloride established chloride established by van Swieten was included in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia up to its 5th edition.
PubMed ID
12680425 View in PubMed
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Access to organs for transplantation: overcoming "rejection".

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature239279
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1985 Jan 15;132(2):113-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-15-1985
Author
M A Somerville
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1985 Jan 15;132(2):113-7
Date
Jan-15-1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cadaver
Canada
Commerce
Contract Services - legislation & jurisprudence
Ethics, Medical
Graft Rejection
Health Services Accessibility - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Kidney Transplantation
Tissue Donors - psychology
Abstract
Recent success in overcoming rejection of transplanted organs has led to a much greater demand for organs from donors and to a reconsideration of mechanisms for increasing the availability of organs from cadavers. In the latter respect the two basic systems are "contracting-in" and "contracting-out". Each system has different benefits and harms, and it is a value judgement that should be adopted. However, both systems raise legal, ethical and practical issues that must be addressed if organs for transplantation are to become available to all who need them.
Notes
Cites: Lancet. 1984 Feb 18;1(8373):407-811644279
Cites: Hastings Cent Rep. 1983 Apr;13(2):20-26853148
Cites: Hastings Cent Rep. 1983 Dec;13(6):23-326360951
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 1983 May;143(5):975-86679240
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1984 Mar 29;310(13):864-86366555
Cites: Hastings Cent Rep. 1984 Feb;14(1):22-36715148
Cites: JAMA. 1984 Mar 23-30;251(12):15926700059
PubMed ID
3880649 View in PubMed
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Access to syringes for HIV prevention for injection drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia: syringe purchase test study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115926
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:183
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Ekaterina V Fedorova
Roman V Skochilov
Robert Heimer
Patricia Case
Leo Beletsky
Lauretta E Grau
Andrey P Kozlov
Alla V Shaboltas
Author Affiliation
The Biomedical Center, 8, Viborgskaya Street, St. Petersburg 194044, Russia. ekaterina_fedorova@yahoo.com
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:183
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Commerce - methods
Female
HIV Infections - etiology - prevention & control
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Male
Pharmacies - classification - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Pharmacists - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Professional Practice Location - statistics & numerical data
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
Russia
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - complications - epidemiology
Syringes - economics - supply & distribution
Abstract
The HIV epidemic in Russia is concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs). This is especially true for St. Petersburg where high HIV incidence persists among the city's estimated 80,000 IDUs. Although sterile syringes are legally available, access for IDUs may be hampered. To explore the feasibility of using pharmacies to expand syringe access and provide other prevention services to IDUs, we investigated the current access to sterile syringes at the pharmacies and the correlation between pharmacy density and HIV prevalence in St. Petersburg.
965 pharmacies citywide were mapped, classified by ownership type, and the association between pharmacy density and HIV prevalence at the district level was tested. We selected two districts among the 18 districts--one central and one peripheral--that represented two major types of city districts and contacted all operating pharmacies by phone to inquire if they stocked syringes and obtained details about their stock. Qualitative interviews with 26 IDUs provided data regarding syringe access in pharmacies and were used to formulate hypotheses for the pharmacy syringe purchase test wherein research staff attempted to purchase syringes in all pharmacies in the two districts.
No correlation was found between the density of pharmacies and HIV prevalence at the district level. Of 108 operating pharmacies, 38 (35%) did not sell syringes of the types used by IDUs; of these, half stocked but refused to sell syringes to research staff, and the other half did not stock syringes at all. Overall 70 (65%) of the pharmacies did sell syringes; of these, 49 pharmacies sold single syringes without any restrictions and 21 offered packages of ten.
Trainings for pharmacists need to be conducted to reduce negative attitudes towards IDUs and increase pharmacists' willingness to sell syringes. At a structural level, access to safe injection supplies for IDUs could be increased by including syringes in the federal list of mandatory medical products sold by pharmacies.
Notes
Cites: J Urban Health. 2013 Apr;90(2):276-8322718357
Cites: J Urban Health. 2010 Dec;87(6):942-5321116724
Cites: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;18 Suppl 1:S60-709663626
Cites: J Infect. 1996 Jan;32(1):53-628852552
Cites: BMJ. 1996 Aug 3;313(7052):272-48704541
Cites: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Sep 1;10(1):82-97648290
Cites: J Urban Health. 2004 Dec;81(4):661-7015466847
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2003 Nov 21;3:3714633286
Cites: Int J STD AIDS. 2003 Oct;14(10):697-70314596774
Cites: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;18 Suppl 1:S94-1019663631
Cites: AIDS. 2006 Apr 4;20(6):901-616549975
Cites: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Apr 15;41(5):657-6316652041
Cites: AIDS Behav. 2006 Nov;10(6):717-2116642418
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2007 Jan;97(1):117-2417138929
Cites: Health Hum Rights. 2012;14(2):34-4823568946
Cites: AIDS Behav. 2010 Aug;14(4):932-4118843531
Cites: J Urban Health. 2010 Jul;87(4):543-5220549568
Cites: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jun 1;109(1-3):79-8320060238
Cites: J Urban Health. 2009 Nov;86(6):918-2819921542
Cites: J Urban Health. 2009 Jul;86 Suppl 1:131-4319507037
Cites: Lancet. 2008 Nov 15;372(9651):1733-4518817968
Cites: Int J Drug Policy. 2008 Apr;19 Suppl 1:S25-3618313910
PubMed ID
23452390 View in PubMed
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Activities of occupational health professionals in academic environments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234500
Source
Am J Prev Med. 1987 Nov-Dec;3(6):327-31
Publication Type
Article
Author
E A Bresnitz
K M Rest
E K Leventhal
Author Affiliation
Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19129.
Source
Am J Prev Med. 1987 Nov-Dec;3(6):327-31
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Commerce
Hospitals
Humans
Occupational Health Services - economics - manpower - supply & distribution
Personnel, Hospital
Policy Making
Professional Staff Committees
Questionnaires
Schools, Medical
United States
Abstract
We surveyed American and Canadian medical schools to assess the extent to which occupational health professionals provided services to their own institutions. Ninety-two of 155 schools (60 percent) responded to a mailed questionnaire. Forty-six (51 percent) of the respondents had an occupational health service distinct from an employee health service. Two thirds of the respondents provided occupational health services to business and industry. Such professionals based in nonclinical departments were more likely to provide educational and epidemiologic services for hospital employees than were professionals based in clinical departments. In those institutions with risk management, biohazards, or health and safety committees, less than one half of the occupational health professionals in those institutions were members of those committees. Five respondents felt that there were financial disincentives to providing occupational health services to their institution's employees. We conclude that academic-based occupational health professionals have inadequate input into the provision of such services at their own institutions.
PubMed ID
3452372 View in PubMed
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Ads pressure Ontario to butt out in retail locations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature174401
Source
CMAJ. 2005 Jun 7;172(12):1544
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-7-2005

Adulteration of Ginkgo biloba products and a simple method to improve its detection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259503
Source
Phytomedicine. 2014 May 15;21(6):912-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2014
Author
Hans Wohlmuth
Kate Savage
Ashley Dowell
Peter Mouatt
Source
Phytomedicine. 2014 May 15;21(6):912-8
Date
May-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Australia
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Commerce
Denmark
Dietary Supplements
Drug Contamination
Flavonols - analysis
Genistein - analysis
Ginkgo biloba - chemistry
Glycosides - analysis
Pharmacopoeias as Topic
Plant Extracts - chemistry
Plant Leaves
Abstract
Extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf are widely available worldwide in herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, botanicals and complementary medicines, and several pharmacopoeias contain monographs for ginkgo leaf, leaf extract and finished products. Being a high-value botanical commodity, ginkgo extracts may be the subject of economically motivated adulteration. We analysed eight ginkgo leaf retail products purchased in Australia and Denmark and found compelling evidence of adulteration with flavonol aglycones in three of these. The same three products also contained genistein, an isoflavone that does not occur in ginkgo leaf. Although the United States Pharmacopeia - National Formulary (USP-NF) and the British and European Pharmacopoeias stipulate a required range for flavonol glycosides in ginkgo extract, the prescribed assays quantify flavonol aglycones. This means that these pharmacopoeial methods are not capable of detecting adulteration of ginkgo extract with free flavonol aglycones. We propose a simple modification of the USP-NF method that addresses this problem: by assaying for flavonol aglycones pre and post hydrolysis the content of flavonol glycosides can be accurately estimated via a simple calculation. We also recommend a maximum limit be set for free flavonol aglycones in ginkgo extract.
PubMed ID
24566389 View in PubMed
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Source
Harv Bus Rev. 2003 Feb;81(2):80-7, 125
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Sydney Rosen
Jonathon Simon
Jeffrey R Vincent
William MacLeod
Matthew Fox
Donald M Thea
Author Affiliation
Boston University School of Public Health's Center for International Health, USA.
Source
Harv Bus Rev. 2003 Feb;81(2):80-7, 125
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Adult
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active - economics
Botswana - epidemiology
Commerce - economics
Cost Savings
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Developing Countries - economics
Employer Health Costs
Employment
HIV Infections - drug therapy - economics - epidemiology
Humans
Internationality
Investments - economics
Middle Aged
Occupational Health Services - economics
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
South Africa - epidemiology
Abstract
If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.
PubMed ID
12577655 View in PubMed
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498 records – page 1 of 50.