Colonoscopy provides incomplete protection from colorectal cancer (CRC), but determinants of post-colonoscopy CRC are not well understood. We compared clinical features and molecular characteristics of CRCs diagnosed at different time intervals after a previous colonoscopy.
We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study of incident CRC cases in Denmark (2007-2011), categorized as post-colonoscopy or detected during diagnostic colonoscopy (in patients with no prior colonoscopy). We compared prevalence of proximal location and DNA mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) in CRC tumors, relative to time since previous colonoscopy, using logistic regression and cubic splines to assess temporal variation.
Of 10,365 incident CRCs, 725 occurred after colonoscopy examinations (7.0%). These were more often located in the proximal colon (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90-2.89) and were more likely to have dMMR (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.00-1.59), but were less likely to be metastatic at presentation (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.48-0.89) compared with CRCs diagnosed in patients with no prior colonoscopy. The highest proportions of proximal and/or dMMR tumors were observed in CRCs diagnosed 3-6 years after colonoscopy, but these features were still more frequent among cancers diagnosed up to 10 years after colonoscopy. The relative excess of dMMR tumors was most pronounced in distal cancers. In an analysis of 85 cases detected after colonoscopy, we found BRAF mutations in 23% of tumors and that 7% of cases had features of Lynch syndrome. Colonoscopy exams were incomplete in a higher proportion of cases diagnosed within
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During the last 15 years, several single-gene mendelian disorders have been discovered that might account for some of the familial aggregation detected in large population studies of colorectal cancer (CRC). Mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer-Lynch syndrome, the most common of the recognized CRC-predisposition syndromes, in which one major feature is a young age for cancer onset. However, for young-onset microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC, the familial risk for CRC is unknown.
Patients with CRC who were
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Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and familial adenomatosis polyposis (FAP) are well-known high-risk cancer syndromes. Hereditary colorectal cancer (HCRC) with at least three relatives with colorectal cancer and a dominant pattern of inheritance but with no specifications for age at onset and two close relatives with colorectal cancer (TCR) are other forms of familial clustering known to carry an increased risk of the disease. The frequency of the total burden of familial colorectal cancer is not well known. We therefore investigated the family history of 400/411 (97%) eligible patients with recently diagnosed colorectal cancer in Västmanland county, Sweden, during a 3-year period. Records or death certificates confirmed the diagnoses of relatives. Five patients (1.2%, 95% CI 0.15-2.2) were diagnosed as having HNPCC, eight (1.9%, 95% CI 0.6-3.2) as having HCRC and thirty-four (8.3%, 95% CI 5.6-11.0) were identified as having TCR. In total, 47 patients (11.4%, 95% CI 8.3-14.5) were found to have a contributing familial background. The implication is thus that every ninth patient with colorectal cancer represents a highly or intermediately increased risk of the disease among relatives. We conclude that the low frequency of individuals identified by family history alone makes the establishment of surveillance programs feasible.
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the diagnostic work-up of colorectal cancer is a prerequisite to improve its quality. Family history is one of few known risk factors of the disease and it is therefore important to investigate to what extent this factor is used in routine management. METHODS: Copies of records from all health-care suppliers visited during diagnostic work-up were requested for 227/235 (97%) patients with recently diagnosed colorectal cancer in the county of Västmanland during 1998-99. A first consultation was identified and records and all diagnostic measures related to the initial consultation were scrutinized. A family history of colorectal cancer was known for 179 patients. RESULTS: Most of the patients, 107 (66%) colon and 57 (86%) rectal cancer patients, had consulted with a general practitioner. The median diagnostic work-up time was 42 days (IQ 12-110) for colon and 23 days (IQ 0-49) for rectal cancer. A double-contrast barium enema was the most commonly used diagnostic method for colon cancer. Family history was documented at the first consultation in 2/179 (1%) cases. In patients with right-sided cancer, median diagnostic work-up time was 53 days in patients with a positive result of faecal occult blood test (FOBT) as compared with 448 in patients with a negative result (P
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease of immunoglobulin-producing plasma cells, which reside mainly in the bone marrow. Family members of MM patients are at a risk of MM, but whether other malignancies are in excess in family members is not established and is the aim of this study. MM patients (24 137) were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 to 2012. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated for MM defined by any cancer diagnosed in first-degree relatives and compared with individuals whose relatives had no cancer. MM was reliably associated with relative's colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, non-thyroid endocrine tumors, leukemia and cancer of unknown primary; in addition, MM was associated with subsites of bone and connective tissue tumors and of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenstr?m macroglobulinema (RR 3.47). MM showed a strong association (RR 1.91) in colorectal cancer families, possibly as part of an unidentified syndrome. All the associations of MM with discordant cancers are novel suggesting that MM shares genetic susceptibility with many cancers. The associations of MM bone and connective tissue tumors were supported by at least two independent results. Whether the results signal bone-related biology shared by MM and these tumors deserves further study.
Newfoundland has the highest rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) of any Canadian province. In order to investigate the factors, especially genetic components, responsible for CRC we established the Newfoundland Colorectal Cancer Registry. In a 5-year period we examined every case of CRC diagnosed under the age of 75 years and obtained consent from 730 cases. Careful analysis of family history was used to assign a familial cancer risk, based on established criteria. We observed that 3.7% of CRC cases came from families meeting the Amsterdam II criteria and a further 0.9% of cases involved familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). An additional 43% of cases met one or more of the revised Bethesda criteria and 31% of all cases had a first-degree relative affected with CRC. We compared the Newfoundland data with data from the province of Ontario, where the same recruitment and risk-assessment criteria were used. In all categories, the indicators of familial risk were significantly higher in Newfoundland. These data were also compared to results published from 13 other population-based studies worldwide. In every category the proportion of Newfoundland cases meeting the criteria was higher than in any other population. The mean differences were: 3.5-fold greater for FAP, 2.8-fold higher for Amsterdam criteria, 2.0-fold higher for Bethesda criteria and 1.9-fold higher for the number of affected first-degree relatives. We conclude that the high incidence of CRC in Newfoundland may be attributable to genetic, or at least familial, factors. In the high-risk families we provide evidence for the involvement of founder mutations in the APC and MSH2 genes.