PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical performance of Helioseal-F, a fluoride-containing fissure sealant, in school children at caries risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A caries risk assessment based on past caries experience, saliva microbial tests, buffer capacity and frequency of sugar intake was carried out in 204 healthy children, 6-7 years of age. Children exhibiting one or more risk factors were considered at caries risk (n = 121) and their permanent molars were sealed with a fluoride-containing fissure sealant, thus forming a fissure sealant group (FSG). The remaining 83 children with low caries risk received no fissure sealants and constituted a reference group (RG). Both groups were followed for 2 years. From 15 children of both groups, unstimulated whole saliva was collected 1 month after sealant placement in order to determine fluoride levels. In another 20 children, a split-mouth study design was utilized to compare the colonization of mutans streptococci adjacent to and on F-containing sealants and conventional controls. The sealants were placed by dental hygienists according to the manufacturers' instructions. RESULTS: A total of 431 fissure sealants were placed at baseline. Complete retention was found in 76.6% during the study period while 22.0% were partially lost. Six sealants (1.4%) were completely lost. The enamel caries incidence was 45% lower (P
A double-blind, randomized, parallel, comparative study was designed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of subgingivally administered minocycline ointment versus a vehicle control.
One hundred four patients (104) with moderate to severe adult periodontitis (34 to 64 years of age; mean 46 years) were enrolled in the study. Following scaling and root planing, patients were randomized to receive either 2% minocycline ointment or a matched vehicle control. Study medication was administered directly into the periodontal pocket with a specially designed, graduated, disposable applicator at baseline; week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Scaling and root planing was repeated at months 6 and 12. Standard clinical variables (including probing depth and attachment level) were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Microbiological sampling using DNA probes was done at baseline; at week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15.
Both treatment groups showed significant and clinically relevant reductions in the numbers of each of the 7 microorganisms measured during the entire 15-month study period. When differences were detected, sites treated with minocycline ointment always produced statistically significantly greater reductions than sites which received the vehicle control. For initial pockets > or =5 mm, a mean reduction in probing depth of 1.9 mm was seen in the test sites, versus 1.2 mm in the control sites. Sites with a baseline probing depth > or =7 mm and bleeding index >2 showed an average of 2.5 mm reduction with minocycline versus 1.5 mm with the vehicle. Gains in attachment (0.9 mm and 1.1 mm) were observed in minocycline-treated sites, with baseline probing depth > or =5 mm and > or =7 mm, respectively, compared with 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm gain at control sites. Subgingival administration of minocycline ointment was well tolerated.
Overall, the results demonstrate that repeated subgingival administration of minocycline ointment in the treatment of adult periodontitis is safe and leads to significant adjunctive improvement after subgingival instrumentation in both clinical and microbiologic variables over a 15-month period.
Indigenous yeasts can be detected at high populations in raw milk Cantal cheese, a French Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) hard cheese. To investigate their use as adjunct cultures to promote flavour development in Cantalet (small Cantal) cheese, three strains isolated from raw milk Cantal cheese, Kluyveromyces lactis, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Pichia fermentans were added at 3 (E3) and 5 (E5) log(10) colony-forming units (cfu)/mL to microfiltered milk at a ratio of 80/10/10 viable cells, respectively. The global microbial, compositional and biochemical changes induced by the presence of yeasts in cheese were determined. Adjunct yeasts did not grow but stayed at viable populations of approximately 4 and 6 log(10) cfu/g in E3 and E5 cheeses, respectively, throughout the ripening period. They were mainly constituted of K. lactis, while P. fermentans and Y. lipolytica were not detectable after 3 and 45 days of ripening, respectively. Several species of indigenous yeasts were also detected in E3 cheeses at the beginning of ripening only, and in the control cheeses without yeasts added. Lactoccoci survived for longer periods in the presence of yeast adjuncts, while, conversely, the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus decreased more rapidly. The addition of yeasts did not influence cheese composition and total free amino acid content. In contrast, it slightly increased lipolysis in both E3 and E5 cheeses and markedly enhanced the formation of some volatile aroma compounds. The concentrations of ethanol, ethyl esters and some branched-chain alcohols were 6 to 10 fold higher in E5 cheeses than in the control cheeses, and only slightly higher in E3 cheeses. This study shows that K. lactis has a potential as cheese adjunct culture in Cantalet cheese and that, added at populations of 4-5 log(10) cfu/g cheese, it enhances the formation of flavour compounds.
To evaluate the role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in gut-derived sepsis, mice were given Pseudomomas aeruginosa strain D4 by bacterial suspension in their drinking water during which time ampicillin (200 mg/kg) was given to disrupt the normal indigenous bacterial flora. Cyclophosphamide was additionally administered to induce bacterial translocation of the P. aeruginosa that had colonized the gastrointestinal tract, and thereby to cause gut-derived sepsis. In this model, TNF-alpha was detected in serum from the next day after the second cyclophosphamide administration, increasing to level of 3 ng/ml in lethal conditions. Average serum TNF-alpha level was significantly higher in mice with bacteraemia than in those without bacteraemia. Treatment with 0.8 microg/kg of recombinant human TNF-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) did not affect the mortality, whereas administration of either 4 and 20 microg/kg of rhTNF-alpha significantly increased the mortality rate in comparison with saline-treated mice. Bacterial counts in liver and blood were significantly higher in 20 microg/kg of rhTNF-alpha treated mice than in saline-treated mice. Treatment with murine anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody significantly reduced the mortality from septic infection. We conclude that TNF-alpha may facilitate bacterial translocation and causes deterioration of gut-derived sepsis due to P. aeruginosa in mice.
Due to increasing resistance to chemical therapeutants, the use of 'cleaner fish' (primarily wrasse, Labridae, species) has become popular in European salmon farming for biocontrol of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). While being efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon cages are commonly high, and systemic bacterial infections constitute a major problem. Atypical furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer types V and VI, is among the most common diagnoses reached in clinical investigations. A previously described real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the A. salmonicida A-layer gene (vapA), was modified and validated for specific and sensitive detection of all presently recognized A-layer types of this bacterium. Before stocking and during episodes of increased mortality in salmon cages, cleaner fish (primarily wild-caught wrasse) were sampled and screened for A. salmonicida by qPCR and culture. Culture indicated that systemic bacterial infections are mainly contracted after salmon farm stocking, and qPCR revealed A. salmonicida prevalences of approximately 4% and 68% in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish, respectively. This underpins A. salmonicida's relevance as a contributing factor to cleaner fish mortality and emphasizes the need for implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) if current levels of cleaner fish use are to be continued or expanded.
Farmers are known to be at high risk from the development of occupational airway disease. The first stage of the European farmers' study has shown that pig farmers in Denmark and Germany, poultry farmers in Switzerland and greenhouse workers in Spain were at highest risk for work-related respiratory symptoms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine exposure levels at relevant farm workplaces. Dust and endotoxin levels as well as microbiological concentrations were determined in 213 crop and animal farming environments by personal sampling. The highest total dust concentrations were found in poultry houses in Switzerland with median concentrations of 7.01 mg/m(3). The median airborne endotoxin concentrations in total dust ranged between 0.36 ng/m(3) in Spanish greenhouses and 257.58 ng/m(3) in poultry houses in Switzerland. Likewise, the highest median concentrations of total (2.0 x (7) cells/m(3)) and active fungi (4.4 x (5) cfu/m(3)) have been found in Swiss poultry houses. The predominant fungus taxa discovered in poultry houses were Eurotium spp. and thermophilic fungi. Cladosporium and Botrytis were mainly detected in greenhouses. The exposure level found in this study might put the farmers at risk from respiratory diseases.
The present study concerns the air quality and microbiological contamination in two newly built operating theatres; one with laminar air flow (LAF) equipment for cardio-thoracic operations, and one with conventional ventilation for urological operations. Both theatres had an identical number of air exchanges (17/h), identical microclimatic conditions and they employed the same cleaning procedures. In the LAF-ventilated operating theatre bacterial contamination of the air was effectively reduced to less than 10 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 in all 125 samples (1 m3 per sample) tested. In most samples, 118/125, the bacterial count was less than 5 CFU/m3, despite the presence of ten persons. The conventionally ventilated theatre reached values up to 120 CFU/m3 during the most active period of the day when approximately seven persons were present. The LAF ventilation reduced both the content of particles in the air and contamination by bacteria on the floor. In both theatres cleaning procedures had only a low impact on CFU in the air and on the floor. The use of diathermia markedly increased the level of small particles in the air, and this may influence the air quality in the operating theatres.
Acute episodes of bronchitis have been shown to be unequally distributed within a population of subjects with chronic bronchitis. Two groups were identified based on incidence of acute bronchitis--subjects who were 'infection-prone' (2-5 infections per year) and those who were 'non-infection-prone' (0-1 infections per year). Minor differences in clinical parameters existed, except for smoking experience. The non-infection-prone group included more current smokers, and the total smoking experience (in 'pack years') was significantly greater in this group. Between-year analysis demonstrated a stability of classification, established after a minimum of two years' prospective observation. Parameters of the host-parasite relationship were assessed in both groups. A significantly greater polybacterial colonization of the oropharynx was observed for chronic bronchitics, both infection-prone (P
The intestinal flora is considered to have an impact on the development of the immune system. In the anthroposophic lifestyle, a diet comprising vegetables spontaneously fermented by lactobacilli, and a restrictive use of antibiotics, anti-pyretics and vaccinations, is typical. The aim of this study was to assess the gut flora in infants in relation to certain lifestyle characteristics associated with anthroposophy. Sixty-nine children
The Norwegian Action Plan against Campylobacter in broilers was implemented in May 2001 with the objective of reducing human exposure to Campylobacter through Norwegian broilers. From each flock, samples collected at the farm about one week prior to slaughter, and then again at the slaughter plant, are examined for the presence of Campylobacter. All farmers with positive flocks are followed up with bio-security advice. Sampling of broiler products at retail level is also included in the Action Plan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existing sampling and culturing methods of the Norwegian Action Plan against Campylobacter in broilers. The material collected was pooled faecal samples, pooled cloacae samples and caecae samples from individuals. The highest number of positives, from culturing of the pooled faecal samples, the pooled cloacae swabs and the caecae swabs from individuals, were obtained at incubation temperature 41.5 degrees C. When comparing the results at incubation temperature 37 and 41.5 degrees C, the faecal samples from the farms demonstrated a high concordance, with a kappa value of 0.88. The results from culturing cloacae swabs and caecae samples from slaughter plant level at two temperatures did not agree very well with a kappa value of 0.21 and moderate value of 0.57, respectively, but were both disconcordant at a level of 0.05. Modelling farm level data indicated that if increasing the number of pooled samples per flock from two (in existing regime) to three, the flock sensitivity increases from 89% to 95%. Modelling of slaughter plant data indicated that three pooled cloacae swabs are needed to identify 90% of the positive flocks. The results from the modelling of caecae data indicated that samples from seven individuals are sufficient to identify 90% of the positive flocks and caecae samples could thus be an alternative to cloacae sampling at slaughter plant level.