17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17HSDs) catalyze the interconversions between active 17 beta-hydroxysteroids and less-active 17-ketosteroids thereby affecting the availability of biologically active estrogens and androgens in a variety of tissues. The enzymes have different enzymatic properties and characteristic cell-specific expression patterns, suggesting differential physiological functions for the enzymes. Epidemiological and endocrine evidence indicate that estrogens play a key role in the etiology of breast cancer while androgens are involved in mechanisms controlling the growth of prostatic cells, both normal and malignant. Recently, we have developed, using LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines, a cell model to study the progression of prostate cancer. In the model LNCaP cells are transformed in culture condition to more aggressive cells, able to grow in suspension cultures. Our results suggest that substantial changes in androgen and estrogen metabolism occur in the cells during the process. These changes lead to increased production of active estrogens during transformation of the cells. Data from studies of breast cell lines and tissues suggest that the oxidative 17HSD type 2 may predominate in human non-malignant breast epithelial cells, while the reductive 17HSD type 1 activity prevails in malignant cells. Deprivation of an estrogen response by using specific 17HSD type 1 inhibitors is a tempting approach to treat estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Our recent studies demonstrate that in addition to sex hormone target tissues, estrogens may be important in the development of cancer in some other tissues previously not considered as estrogen target tissues such as colon. Our data show that the abundant expression of 17HSD type 2 present in normal colonic mucosa is significantly decreased during colon cancer development.
The mRNA expression of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) types 1 and 2 enzymes catalyzing opposite reaction of estrogen metabolism was investigated in colon cancer. Further, the significance of the 17HSD type 2 enzyme as a possible marker of colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis was studied. In the normal mucosa, 17HSD type 2 mRNA was predominantly expressed in the surface epithelium and in the upper parts of the crypts. In the lamina propria expression was seen in endothelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes. In colorectal tumors, 17HSD type 2 expression was in most cases downregulated. Female patients had significantly more cancers with high 17HSD type 2 mRNA expression (n=11/35; 31%) than male patients (n=3/39; 8%) (P=0.02). We observed a significant impact of 17HSD type 2 mRNA expression on survival in female patients with distal colorectal cancer (n=24), with an overall cumulative 5-year survival rate of 54% in those with low 17HSD type 2 mRNA expression. None of the female patients with high 17HSD type 2 mRNA expression survived (n=11; P=0.0068; log rank 7.32). In male patients, no significant association with survival was observed. Our data provide evidence suggesting that low 17HSD type 2 mRNA expression is an independent marker of favorable prognosis in females with distal colorectal cancer, supporting the presence of gender- and location-related differences in the pathogenesis of colon cancer.
The mandatory use of seatbelts has become commonplace in Canada, and such legislation was adopted by the province of British Columbia in 1977. This has provided us with an opportunity to study the effects of seatbelt restraints on accident victims, particularly concerning abdominal injuries. Five hundred sixty-two patient charts were reviewed during a 3-year period. Documented use of seatbelts was found in 126 cases. Thirty-six of these patients underwent laparotomy and form the basis of this study. Compared with previously reported figures for blunt abdominal trauma, there was a high incidence of gastrointestinal injuries (67 percent). In addition, associated lumbar spine injuries were found in a large proportion of patients (19 percent, p less than 0.005). We found an increased risk of spinal injury in patients wearing a lap versus a three-point belt.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and character of chronic abdominal pain in a group of patients with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess predictors of abdominal pain. STUDY DESIGN: Postal survey. SETTING: Members of the Danish Paraplegic Association. METHODS: We mailed a questionnaire to 284 members of the Danish Paraplegic Association who met the inclusion criteria (member for at least 10 years). The questionnaire contained questions about cause and level of spinal injury, colorectal function and pain/discomfort. RESULTS: Seventy percent returned the questionnaire (133 men and 70 women). Mean age was 47 years. Thirty-four percent reported having chronic abdominal pain or discomfort. Onset of pain was later than 5 years after their SCI in 53%. Low defecation frequency was more common in patients with abdominal pain/discomfort and constipation more often affected their quality of life compared to patients without abdominal pain/discomfort. The most common descriptors were annoying, cramping/tightening, tender, sickening and shooting/jolting. There was no relation to age, time since injury or level of injury, but more women than men reported abdominal pain/discomfort. There was no relation of abdominal pain to other types of pain. CONCLUSION: Chronic pain located in the abdomen is frequent in patients with long-term SCI. The delayed onset following SCI and the relation to constipation suggest that constipation plays an important role for this type of pain in the spinal cord injured.
The aim of the study was to assess the association of abdominal symptoms in a random sample of a general population and to find whether the associations could be confirmed at follow-up 5 years later. The study population was a sex- and age-stratified random sample of people living in the western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark. Of 4807 eligible subjects 79% attended the study and filled in a questionnaire on abdominal symptoms. Five years later the study was repeated and 85% of the survivors participated. Data from both studies were analysed separately for sex, age group and the following pain variables: unspecified abdominal pain, pain located to the epigastrium, pain provoked by stress or hunger, pain relieved by eating and pain relieved by defecation. Three clusters of symptoms occurred in all the analyses: borborygmi/altering stool consistency/distension; acid regurgitation/heartburn and nausea/vomiting. Unspecified pain was associated with all three clusters, pain provoked by stress or hunger and pain relieved by defecation associated with the borborygmi/altering stool/distension cluster, whereas pain in the epigastrium and pain relieved by eating did not show consistent relationships to any of the clusters. Additionally, the clusters associated with each other more often than could be expected by chance. As a consequence of our findings we suggest that the three clusters of symptoms constitute three common abdominal syndromes.
In tumor localization at the level of 7--12 cm aside from the anus the authors performed 168 abdominoanal resections of the rectum with descending of different portions of the left colon. Among these patients in 126 subjects descending of the sigmoid in the anal canal was performed, in 30 of the splenic angle of the transverse colon, and in 12 of a proximal portion of the descending left colon. Some characteristic features of surgery for descending of different portions of the left colon are described.
Cancer of the colon is the second most common malignancy in North America and screening methods are needed for diagnosing the lesions at an early stage. Faecal occult blood screening is a method of secondary prevention which is particularly adaptable to the family practice setting. In order to test the feasibility of using this test in family practice, 16 family physicians participated in a trial screening programme using the Hemoccult II test. During the two-month trial 776 patients over 40 years of age were screened; 19 of the tests were positive but in two cases patients were thought to have failed to follow dietary and medical restrictions. Of the 17 patients with verified positive tests, further investigation showed five patients had neoplastic disease and three of these had malignant disease. The detection rate for cancer of the colon using the Hemoccult II test was therefore 3/776, equivalent to 3.9 per 1000 cases screened. By narrowing the age range for screening patients to between 45 and 75 years, the time involved to screen the population at risk could be decreased.
The frequency of polypectomy is an important indicator of quality assurance for population-based colorectal cancer screening programs. Although administrative databases of physician claims provide population-level data on the performance of polypectomy, the accuracy of the procedure codes has not been examined. We determined the level of agreement between physician claims for polypectomy and documentation of the procedure in endoscopy reports.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving patients aged 50-80 years who underwent colonoscopy at seven study sites in Montréal, Que., between January and March 2007. We obtained data on physician claims for polypectomy from the Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec (RAMQ) database. We evaluated the accuracy of the RAMQ data against information in the endoscopy reports.
We collected data on 689 patients who underwent colonoscopy during the study period. The sensitivity of physician claims for polypectomy in the administrative database was 84.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.6%-89.4%), the specificity was 99.0% (95% CI 97.5%-99.6%), concordance was 95.1% (95% CI 93.1%-96.5%), and the kappa value was 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.91).
Despite providing a reasonably accurate estimate of the frequency of polypectomy, physician claims underestimated the number of procedures performed by more than 15%. Such differences could affect conclusions regarding quality assurance if used to evaluate population-based screening programs for colorectal cancer. Even when a high level of accuracy is anticipated, validating physician claims data from administrative databases is recommended.