To compare the 1-year (previously published) and 3-year objective and subjective cure rates, and complications, related to the use of a collagen-coated transvaginal mesh for anterior vaginal wall prolapse against a conventional anterior repair.
Randomised controlled study.
Six departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark.
A total of 138 women, of 55 years of age or older, admitted for stage =2 anterior vaginal wall prolapse.
The women scheduled for primary anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery were randomised between conventional anterior colporrhaphy and surgery with a collagen-coated prolene mesh. All patients were evaluated using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) assessment before and after surgery. Symptoms related to pelvic organ prolapse were evaluated using the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) and the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of one-stage implants placed at the time of alveolar bone augmentation using simultaneous guided bone regeneration technique with a collagen barrier membrane in patients suffering from insufficient bone width. Seventeen patients were treated with 20 one-stage OSTEOFIX (Oulu, Finland) implants using simultaneous guided bone regeneration technique. Dehiscence defects were filled by bovine bone mineral Bio-Oss and covered with collagen membrane. Clinical and radiographic parameters of the peri-implant conditions were assessed at the moment of prosthesis placement and at 1- and 5-year follow-ups. Diagnostic dehiscence defect measurements after implant placement showed that the mean vertical defect varied from 3.8 mm to 10.0 mm. At the moment of prosthesis placement and at 1- and 5-year follow-ups all implants were stable, painless and without biological complications. Clinical and radiographic parameters of the peri-implant conditions remained stable during follow-up. The cumulative implant survival rate was 100% after the 5-year observation period and the success rate for all pooled implants was 90%. The present study showed predictable treatment outcomes recorded after 5 years of function for one-stage OSTEOFIX (Oulu, Finland) oral implants placed simultaneously with guided bone regeneration using collagen membrane and deproteinized bovine bone mineral.
It is widely accepted that basement membrane (BM) components are synthesized by epithelial cells and that production of BM-degrading proteases by cancer cells is necessary for invasive growth. In this study we used nucleic acid in situ hybridization (ISH) to investigate the presence of mRNAs for 72 KD and 92 KD Type IV collagenase, alpha 1 (IV) chain of Type IV collagen, and laminin B1 chain in 20 breast carcinomas of various histological types. The mRNA signals for 72 KD Type IV collagenase, Type IV collagen, and laminin were much more abundant in stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells than in carcinoma cells. The signal for 92 KD Type IV collagenase mRNA was strong in carcinoma cells and considerably weaker in stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Labeling for 72 KD and 92 KD Type IV collagenase mRNA was also found in benign fibroadenomas and for 92 KD Type IV collagenase in non-neoplastic ducts and acini. The results indicate that stromal cells have a more important role in the synthesis and degradation of BMs in breast carcinomas than previously thought and that production of these enzymes is not restricted to malignancy.
Several types of collagen are known to exist in the intervertebral disc in addition to the fibrillar collagens, Types I and II. Although they constitute only a small percentage of the total collagen content, these minor collagens may have important functions. This study was designed to investigate the presence of Types I, II, III, IV, VI, and IX collagens in the intervertebral disc and cartilage end plate by immunohistochemistry, thereby establishing their location within the tissues. Types III and VI collagen have a pericellular distribution in animal and human tissue. No staining for Type IX collagen was present in normal human disc, but in rat and bovine intervertebral disc, it was also located pericellularly. These results show that cells of the intervertebral disc and cartilage end plate sit in fibrous capsules, forming chondrons similar to those described in articular cartilage. In pathologic tissue the amount and distribution of the collagen types, and the organization of the pericellular capsule, differ from that seen in control material.
Type XIII collagen is a type II transmembrane protein found at sites of cell adhesion. Transgenic mouse lines were generated by microinjection of a DNA construct directing the synthesis of truncated alpha1(XIII) chains. Shortened alpha 1(XIII) chains were synthesized by fibroblasts from mutant mice, and the lack of intracellular accumulation in immunofluorescent staining of tissues suggested that the mutant molecules were expressed on the cell surface. Transgene expression led to fetal lethality in offspring from heterozygous mating with two distinct phenotypes. The early phenotype fetuses were aborted by day 10.5 of development due to a lack of fusion of the chorionic and allantoic membranes. The late phenotype fetuses were aborted by day 13.5 of development and displayed a weak heartbeat, defects of the adherence junctions in the heart with detachment of myofilaments and abnormal staining for the adherence junction component cadherin. Decreased microvessel formation was observed in certain regions of the fetus and the placenta. These results indicate that type XIII collagen has an important role in certain adhesive interactions that are necessary for normal development.
Type XVIII collagen is important in the early phase of retinal vascular development and for the regression of the primary vasculature in the vitreous body after birth. We show here that the retina in Col18a1-/- mice becomes densely vascularized by anomalous anastomoses from the persistent hyaloid vasculature by day 10 after birth. In situ hybridizations revealed normal VEGF mRNA expression, but the phenotype of collagen XVIII deficient mice closely resembled that of mice expressing VEGF120 and VEGF188 isoforms only, suggesting that type XVIII collagen may be involved in VEGF function. Type XVIII collagen was found to be indispensable for angiogenesis in the eye, as also oxygen-induced neovascularization was less intense than normal in the Col18a1-/- mice. We observed a marked increase in the amount of retinal astrocytes in the Col18a1-/- mice. Whereas the retinal vessels of wild-type mice are covered by astrocytes and the regressing, thin hyaloid vessels are devoid of astrocytes, the retinal vessels in the Col18a1-/- mice were similarly covered by astrocytes but not the persistent hyaloid vessels in the vitreous body. Interestingly, double null mice lacking type XVIII collagen and its homologue type XV collagen had the persistent hyaloid vessels covered by astrocytes, including the parts located in the vitreous body. We thus hypothesize that type XV collagen is a regulator of glial cell recruitment around vessels and that type XVIII collagen regulates their proliferation.
Stable carbon isotope ratios in prehistoric human bone collagen have been used extensively to document the introduction and intensification of maize horticulture in notheastern North America. Most previous studies are based on small samples of adults who are assumed to characterize the diet of the population. In this study, all 29 individuals buried within an Ontario Iroquoian village site dated A.D. 1530-1580 were analysed for stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Age distribution of the sample ranges from preterm to elderly. Significant negative correlations between age and delta 13C, and age and delta 15N values were found. High delta 13C values in infants and young children (delta 13C = -6.8 to -12.3) suggest a weaning diet high in maize. High delta 15N values in infants relative to adults suggest a trophic level effect during breast-feeding which has been reported in a modern sample by Tuross et al. (Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 1993). In addition to the isotopic evidence for extremely high carbohydrate (maize) intake, the MacPherson sample includes two juveniles aged 3-4 years, exhibiting circular caries. No other cases of this condition are known in the extensively studied southern Ontario skeletal collections. Together the evidence from dentition and stable carbon isotopes indicates a very high carbohydrate diet in subadults. Circular caries result from developmental stress during enamel formation with subsequent caries formation in areas of thinner enamel. These findings are relevant to studies of infant and early childhood morbidity and mortality among prehistoric maize horticulturists.
Erratum In: Am J Phys Anthropol 1993 Sep;92(1):127
The main extracellular matrix components in Arctic residents were studied. Northerners had increased levels of total glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronan, and collagen IV in plasma and both general and peptide-bound hydroxyproline in urine, which indicates an accelerated metabolism of the main extracellular matrix components compared with comparison group (residents of Siberia). Age-related remodeling of extracellular matrix in northerners manifested in changing ratio and quantity of its main components. Levels of total glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronan, fibronectin, hydroxyproline and its fractions increased with age while the level of collagen IV changed insignificantly. Average positive correlation between extracellular matrix components and biological aging indicators is suggestive of relationship between these two processes: aging - which is accelerated in the Arctic and pathological remodeling of extracellular matrix as it is associated with accelerated aging. Changes in local regulation system including those related to matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors may be one of the reasons for pathological remodeling of extracellular matrix.