Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at high risk of colonic dysplasia. Therefore, surveillance colonoscopy to detect early dysplasia has been endorsed by many professional organizations.
To determine whether gastroenterologists at Hamilton Health Sciences (Hamilton, Ontario) adhere to recommendations for UC surveillance issued by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and to retrospectively assess the incidence and type of dysplasia found and the subsequent outcome of patients with dysplasia (ie, colorectal cancer [CRC], colectomy, dysplasia recurrence).
A retrospective chart review of all patients with UC undergoing colonoscopy screening at Hamilton Health Sciences from January 1980 to January 2005, was performed. Patients were classified by the extent of colonic disease: limited left-sided colitis (LSC), pancolitis and any disease extent with concurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis.
A total of 141 patients fulfilled eligibility criteria. They underwent 921 endoscopies, including 453 for surveillance, which were performed by 20 endoscopists. Overall, screening was performed on 90% of patients, and surveillance at the appropriate time in 74%. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean number of biopsies per colonoscopy after the guidelines were published (P
This study is based on all patients with ulcerative colitis from a defined catchment area in Northern Sweden in a still ongoing colonoscopy surveillance programme, which started in 1977. From this material we selected tissue from eight groups of patients consisting of normal control biopsies (5), inactive colitis (10), active colitis (10), findings of low-grade dysplasia (10), high-grade dysplasia (6), aneuploidy (without dysplasia and with subsequent dysplasia) (10), and ulcerative colitis-associated cancers (5). The samples were evaluated according to immunohistochemical expression of CK7 and CK20. Colonic mucosa from normal controls and inactive colitis was found to be completely negative for CK7. In 9 out of 10 patients with active colitis, CK7 was sparsely expressed in a patchy manner and connected with active epithelial inflammatory areas. 7 out of 10 patients with low-grade dysplasia and 3 out of 6 with high-grade dysplasia were positive for CK7. Samples with aneuploidy without dysplasia were completely negative, while 2 out of 6 showing subsequent dysplasia were positive. Of the five cancers, two were positive for CK7. CK20 was expressed in nearly all samples but relatively more in the lower part of the crypts in neoplasia-associated lesions. Our results indicate a possible relationship between expression of CK7 and CK20 and neoplastic development of colorectal mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether these findings have clinical significance.
Iron deficiency and anemia are being increasingly recognized as a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to observe, in a non-interventional way, how Swedish gastroenterologists adhere to guidelines in IBD outpatients treated with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), and the result of treatment.
Altogether 394 IBD patients (Crohn's disease (CD) 60%, ulcerative colitis (UC) 40%) from 14 centers were included. Group A (n = 216) was observed from November 2008 and group B (n = 178) from March 2010. Time of observation ranged from 12 to 29 months.
S-Ferritin (?mol/l) and transferrin saturation (T-Sat; %) were recorded at baseline in 62% and 50% in group A. Median values for Hb, ferritin and T-Sat at baseline were 111 g/l, 10 ?mol/l and10%, respectively, and 134 g/l, 121 ?mol/l and 20% after iron treatment (p
Prevalence of anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is uncertain because of scarcity of population-based studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence of anemia in a population-based cohort of newly diagnosed patients with IBD to identify risk factors for anemia and to describe contemporary anemia-specific treatment during the first year.
All patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease in the IBD Cohort of Uppsala Region cohort (n = 790) and hemoglobin levels at the time of diagnosis were eligible for inclusion. The WHO definition of anemia was used.
Seven hundred forty-nine (95%) of the patients with IBD were included. Five hundred eighty of 749 (77%) patients had measured hemoglobin levels at 12-month follow-up. The prevalence of anemia at the time of diagnosis was 227/749 (30%). After 1 year, it was 102/580 (18%). Anemia was more common among newly diagnosed patients with Crohn's disease compared with ulcerative colitis (42% versus 24%, P
The association between abdominal symptoms, disease severity of fecal incontinence (FI), and quality of life (QoL) is not yet clear. We hypothesized that it would become clearer by prospective diary data. We also aimed to compare QoL of FI patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in relapse and remission.
Sixty-five consecutive female patients with FI recorded bowel symptoms prospectively on diary cards. QoL was evaluated with the disease specific short health scale questionnaire (SHS). Patients with UC in remission and relapse were used as a reference group regarding SHS.
FI patients had median 3.5 leakage episodes/week. In all, 48% of bowel movements were associated with urgency. Urgency was correlated to decreased QoL according to SHS domains: symptoms (Rho = 0.54, p = 0.0002), function (Rho = 0.48, p = 0.0008), and disease related worry (Rho = 0.32, p = 0.027). Abdominal pain and bloating, reported by nearly half of patients, correlated to deceased QoL but not to number of leakages. QoL of patients with FI compared to UC in active phase (n = 35) was similar. FI patients had decreased QoL compared to UC in remission (n = 94) in all dimensions of SHS: symptoms (p
Psoriasis, Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic inflammatory disorders with overlapping genetic architecture. However, data on the frequency and risk of CD and UC in psoriasis are scarce and poorly understood.
To investigate the association between CD and UC in patients with psoriasis.
All Danish individuals aged = 18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 were linked in nationwide registers. Psoriasis severity was defined in two models: hospital visits and medication. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by Poisson regression.
In the total cohort (n = 5 554 100) there were 75 209 incident cases of psoriasis, 11 309 incident cases of CD and 30 310 incident cases of UC, during follow-up. The adjusted IRRs (95% confidence intervals) of CD were 1·28 (1·03-1·59), 2·56 (1·87-3·50), 2·85 (1·72-4·73) and 3·42 (2·36-4·95) in patients with mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis (hospital), severe psoriasis (medication) and psoriatic arthritis, respectively. Similarly, the adjusted IRRs of UC were 1·49 (1·32-1·68), 1·56 (1·22-2·00), 1·96 (1·36-2·83) and 2·43 (1·86-3·17), respectively. The 10-year incidence of CD was 2-5 per 1000 patients and of UC 7-11 per 1000 patients, depending on psoriasis severity and the presence of psoriatic arthritis. Additionally, an increased risk of incident psoriasis was found following CD or UC.
We observed a psoriasis-associated increased risk of CD and UC, which was higher in severe psoriasis, and an increased risk of psoriasis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Increased focus on gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with psoriasis may be warranted.
BACKGROUND: Personal history of autoimmune diseases is consistently associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In contrast, there are limited data on risk of Hodgkin lymphoma following autoimmune diseases and almost no data addressing whether there is a familial association between the conditions. METHODS: Using population-based linked registry data from Sweden and Denmark, 32 separate autoimmune and related conditions were identified from hospital diagnoses in 7476 case subjects with Hodgkin lymphoma, 18,573 matched control subjects, and more than 86,000 first-degree relatives of case and control subjects. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as measures of relative risks for each condition using logistic regression and also applied multivariable hierarchical regression models. All P values are two-sided. RESULTS: We found statistically significantly increased risks of Hodgkin lymphoma associated with personal histories of several autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9 to 4.0), systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.2 to 15.1), sarcoidosis (OR = 14.1, 95% CI = 5.4 to 36.8), and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (OR = infinity, P = .002). A statistically significant increase in risk of Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with family histories of sarcoidosis (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.01 to 3.1) and ulcerative colitis (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.6). CONCLUSIONS: Personal or family history of certain autoimmune conditions was strongly associated with increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. The association between both personal and family histories of sarcoidosis and a statistically significantly increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma suggests shared susceptibility for these conditions.
A central role in anal carcinogenesis of high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) was recently established, but the possible role of benign anal lesions has not been addressed in hrHPV-positive and -negative anal cancers. As part of a population-based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden, we interviewed 417 case patients (93 men and 324 women) diagnosed during the period 1991-94 with invasive or in situ anal cancer, 534 patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum and 554 population controls. Anal cancer specimens (n = 388) were tested for HPV by the polymerase chain reaction. Excluding the 5 years immediately before diagnosis, men, but not women, with anal cancer reported a history of haemorrhoids [multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-3.2] and unspecific anal irritation (OR 4.5; CI 2.3-8.7) significantly more often than controls. Women with anal cancer did not report a history of benign anal lesions other than anal abscess to any greater extent than controls, but they had used anal suppositories more often (OR 1.5; CI 1.1-2.0). Patients with hrHPV in anal cancer tissue (84%) and those without (16%) reported similar histories of most benign anal lesions, but anal fissure or fistula was more common among hrHPV-positive cases. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, reported by
A cohort of 5,546 ulcerative colitis patients was identified from the Danish Hospital Discharge Register for 1977-1989. Patients not included in the cohort comprised those with proctitis, those treated in outpatient clinics and those for whom follow-up was less than 1 year. The cohort was linked to the Danish Cancer Registry in order to assess the risks for colorectal and other cancers. The linkage revealed a significant increase in the number of colorectal cancers over that in the general population (RR = 1.8; n = 42; 95% CI = 1.3-2.4) with consistent relative risks during early and late follow-up. The relative risk was considerably higher among younger (20-39 years: RR = 22; n = 8; 95% CI = 9.7-44) than older patients (> or = 60 years: RR = 1.3; n = 25; 95% CI = 0.8-1.9), but the risk difference between patients and the general population was approximately constant across all ages. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the relative risk of hepatobiliary cancers (RR = 2.3; n = 9; 95% = 1.0-4.3) and a slight but significant increase in the relative risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (RR = 1.4; n = 37; 95% CI = 1.0-1.9). In summary, our population-based study confirms the increased risk of colorectal cancer among patients with ulcerative colitis and provides new leads suggesting that hepatobiliary cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer should be considered as possible sites for future patient monitoring.
Two hundred thirty-four patients with extensive ulcerative colitis from the city of Göteborg, Sweden have been followed up and the cumulative risk of development of cancer of the large bowel was estimated. These patients constitute all persons in this region who developed an extensive ulcerative colitis between 1951 and 1974. All patients were followed up until December 1975. The mean observation time was 8.5 years, median value six years. Fifteen patients developed carcinoma of the large bowel. Five of the 15 patients were still alive in December 1975. The expected number of colorectal carcinomas in a matched reference group was 0.49. The cumulative incidence of carcinoma 25 years after the onset of colitis for the whole group of patients was 34% and for those who developed the disease before 25 years of age it was 43%.