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Cold exposure and xenobiotic metabolism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76752
Source
Pages 265-268 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1988
Arctic Medical Research, Vol. 47 Suppl. 1, pp. 261 -264, 1988 COLD EXPOSURE AND XENOBIOTIC METBOLISM J. H. Stengard (1), R. I. Karvonen (4), H. U. Saarni (1), E. A. Sotaniemi (2) and F. Stenback (3, 4) Department of Pharmacology (1), Department of Internal Medicine (2) and Department of
  1 document  
Author
Stengard, J.H.
Karvonen, R.I.
Saarni, H.U.
Sotaniemi, E.A.
Stenbäck, , F.
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology
Department of Internal Medicine
Department of Pathology, University of Oulu
Nordic Council for Arctic Medical Research, Oulu, Finland
Source
Pages 265-268 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Date
1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Cold exposure
Environmental temperature
Genetic factors
Liver xenobiotic metabolism
Liver weight
Obese mice
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Comparison of swimming and cold in rats which were fed periodically.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297279
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-66-13.
Publication Type
Report
Date
February 1967
protein intake (1). As a tool for the investigation of metabolic changes resulting from increased energy turnover, chronic cold exposure is easily controlled and the extent of appetite stimula- tion, and thus energy flux, can be accurately measured. This is difficult to achieve in exercised rats
  1 document  
Author
Vaughan, David A.
Stull, Harold D.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-66-13.
Date
February 1967
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
788067
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Rats
Cold exposure
Exercise
High-fat diets
Glucose-6-phosphatase
Liver Glycogen
Glutamic pyruvic transaminase
Abstract
Rats fed meals of high- and low- carbohydrate diets (2 hours daily) were either forced to swim at 38 - 40° C for 1-1 /2 hours daily for 15 days .or kept in a 7° C cold room.for approximately 4 weeks. On the low-carbohydrate diet, liver glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) were elevated in both swimmers and cold-exposed rats. In high-carbohydrate-fed swimming and cold-exposed rats, liver GPT was elevated, but G-6-Pase rose only in the cold-exposed rats. Peak liver glycogen in the high-carbohydrate-fed swimmers was depressed, while in high-carbohydrate-fed., cold-exposed rats it reached higher levels following meals. High-fat diets did not adversely affect swimming capacity of rats. It is suggested that cyclic events in the glycolytic components of livers of rats fed carbohydrate meals are altered in different ways and thus preclude using cold as a model for exercise. When high-fat diets are fed, these cycles are minimized and the responses to the two stresses are similar.
Notes
ALASKA RC955.U9 no.66-13
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Dietary modifications of cold-induced metabolic effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297280
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-66-12.
Publication Type
Report
Date
February 1967
. The two enzymes studied showed differing responses, HlvlP dehydrogenase increasing as a result of higher input of carbohydrate in the cold, and G-6-Pase increasing as an apparent result of cold exposure per se. iii I INTRODUCTION When rats are placed in moderate cold, e.g., 6° - 7° C
  1 document  
Author
Vaughan, David A.
Vaughan, Lucile N.
Stull, Harold D.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-66-12.
Date
February 1967
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
663075
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Rats
Cold exposure
High-fat diet
HMP dehydrogenase
Paired feeding
Glucose-6-phosphatase
Abstract
Cold-exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats were forced to obtain their extra caloric requirements from either carbohydrate (sucrose) or fat (Crisco). Rats were killed, one, four and eight weeks after initiation of the feeding regimen. Carcass fat, protein, and moisture analyses were made. Liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), hexose monophosphate (HMP) dehydrogenase, and glycogen were assayed. At the end of four weeks and eight weeks the percentages of fat in the carcasses of these rats were significantly higher than in the cold-exposed rats receiving a mixed complete diet ad libitum. The two enzymes studied showed differing responses, HMP dehydrogenase increasing as a result of higher input of carbohydrate in the cold, and G-6-Pase increasing as an apparent result of cold exposure per se.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.66-13
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Effects of cold exposure upon the action of therapeutic drugs: part II.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297289
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-66-3.
Publication Type
Report
Date
April 1966
! lREF ~ALASKA {RC :·955 I .U9 no.66-3 t966 AAL-TR-66-3 ALASKA HEALTH SCIENCES Ll9HARY ANMC, ANCHORAGE, AL.ASKA I Copy 1 .__ __ _..EFFECTS OF COLD EXPOSURE UPON THE ACTION OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS: PART II James Y. P. Chen H. C. Bergman April 1966 ARCTIC AEROMEDICAL
  1 document  
Author
Chen, James Y.P.
Bergman, H.C.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-66-3.
Date
April 1966
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
1764899
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Cold exposure
Therapeutic drugs
Prochlorperazine
Dextroamphetamine sulfate
Meperidine hydrochloride
Acute toxicity
Avoidance response
Abstract
In rats acutely exposed to cold as compared to room temperature, the toxic responses to parenteral injections of meperidine hydrochloride, of dextroamphetamine sulfate and of prochlorperazine ethanesulfonate were invariably greater in cold than at room temperature. With further experiments an even greater increase was noted in the acute oral toxicity of prochlorperazine dimaleate at 4° C; the acute oral toxicity of this drug was 144 times greater at 4° C than at room temperature. This large difference in toxicity appeared to be an additive effect of the inherent hypothermic action of the drug and of the temperature-lowering action in the cold environment. Tests with larger animals, monkeys and dogs, indicated that the differences in toxicity between the room temperature and cold environments were not as great as in rats. The ability of large animals to retain body heat in the cold for a longer time than rats can may have contributed to the lesser effect. The results with monkeys injected with prochlorperazine in increasing dosage may have revealed the possibility of a tolerance development to the drug. Dextroamphetamine sulfate was about equally effective at either environment in inhibiting sleep in monkeys induced with pentobarbital. The tranquilizing effect of prochlor.perazine, as shown by avoidance behavior in monkeys subjected to a mild electric shock, was found to be about the same at 4° C as at room temperature. In dogs, injections of prochlorperazine at room temperature were about as effective as at 4° C in preventing emesis by an emetic dose of apomorphine.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.66-3
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Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of the cold-exposed beagle dog.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297341
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-61-32. 6 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
October 1961
aerobic (Hannon, 1960b) phases of intermediary carbohydrate metabolism. In species other than the rat the effects of prolonged cold exposure on glucose metabolism have received very little attention. This is especially true in larger mammals such as the dog or human, where to the best of our knowledge
  1 document  
Author
Durrer, John L.
Hannon, John P.
Author Affiliation
Physiology Department, Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-61-32. 6 p.
Date
October 1961
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
435157
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Dogs
Cold exposure
Insulin
Blood glucose
Abstract
Five male Beagle dogs were obtained from a moderate climate and were immediately subjected to 4-weeks indoor exposure to a warm control environment. This was followed by gradual exposure for ten days to outdoor winter temperatures in the Arctic, after which they were subjected to continuous outdoor exposure. Measurements of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were made during the control and cold-exposed condition. They indicated little, if any, effect of cold acclimatization on insulin sensitivity, although some changes in the shape and the position of the blood glucose curve following insulin injection were noted. Cold acclimatization was associated with an increase in the glucose tolerance.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.61-32
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Source
Pages 37-46 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Date
1976
contrast to many mammals, man can adjust his microclimate during cold exposure by the use of clothing and by building shelters. Thus with certain exceptions in primitive desert- dwellers {where the cold exposure is nowhere as severe as in the Arctic), man spends little time with a wide area of body
  1 document  
Author
Cooper, KE
Author Affiliation
Division of Medical Physiology, University of Alberta, Calgary, Canada
Source
Pages 37-46 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Date
1976
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Acclimation
Acclimatization
Adaptation
Cold exposure
Cold-induced vasodilatation
Cold pressor response
Energy expenditure
Fatty acids
Food intake
Limbic system
Metabolic changes
Microclimate
Non-shivering thermogenesis
Peripheral thermoregulatory responses
Seasonal and climatic changes
Threshold sensation
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Metabolic and functional changes in the heart during prolonged hypothermia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298768
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report, TDR-64-4. 9 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
September 1964
  1 document  
Author
Russ, C.
Lee, J.C.
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical documentary report, TDR-64-4. 9 p.
Date
September 1964
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
936167
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Dogs
Cold exposure
Metabolism
Myocardial temperature
Hypoxia
Abstract
The effect of hypothermia of 25° C for 24 hours on myocardial metabolism and efficiency was determined on dogs fasted for approximately 15 hours and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. Coronary blood flow, cardiac output, myocardial oxygen and substrate utilization, and mechanical efficiency of the heart were determined at normal and reduced body temperatures. Prolonged reduction of myocardial temperature, with concomitant reduction in coronary blood flow, led to diminished oxygen and substrate utilization. Myocardial glycolysis began following 12 hours of cooling when pyruvate utilization stopped in negative balance. After 24 hours the heart stopped utilizing carbohydrates, with negative arteriovenous differences for these substrates (in the presence of normal arterial carbohydrate levels), but continued to utilize nonesterified fatty acid. The coefficient of oxygen utilization for the heart increased following 24 hours of cooling, suggesting a relative state of myocardial hypoxia. The appearance of hypoxia and glycolysis during the late hours of cooling suggest that the heart's limit of tolerance to cooling was near.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.64-4
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Research concerning the influence of acute exposure to cold on the thyroid function.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297285
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-66-7.
Publication Type
Report
Date
July 1966
the volunteers were kept for two hours at 4° C. A marked increase of the levels of PBI 125 was observ- ed four hours after the end of cold exposure; plasma PBI 127 was also increased but to a lesser extent; the validity of these findings was checked by a parallel experiment at normal temperature
  1 document  
Author
Ermans, A.M.
Camus, M.
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-66-7.
Date
July 1966
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
1900196
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Humans
Thyroid
Cold exposure
Organic iodine metabolism
Human acclimatization
Abstract
The quantitative aspects of iodine metabolism have been evaluated in normal healthy human subjects by means of a tracing method and long-term iodine balance studies. The behavior of the specific activities of hormonal iodine in the intra- and extra-thyroidal compartments cannot be explained on the basis of a relationship of precursor to product when the thyroidal compartments are considered as a whole. On the contrary, experimental findings fit with such a relationship if one considers the fraction of the thyroid compartment which is mobilized by exogenous TSH. A kinetic model of iodine metabolism taking account of such a functional heterogeneity has been studied by means of digital and analog computers. One interesting aspect of this heterogeneity is the very high specific activity of the organic iodine released by TSH, when TSH is given a short time after the administration of radioiodine. This. approach appears to be a very sensitive method for the detection of any TSH-like effect on the thyroid gland. This property has been used for the estimation of the influence of an acute exposure to cold on the thyroid function of eight volunteers. Twenty-four hours after the administration of I 125 the volunteers were kept for two hours at 4° C. A marked increase of the levels of PBI 125 was observed four hours after the end of cold exposure; plasma PBI 127 was also increased but to a lesser extent; the validity of these findings was checked by a parallel experiment at normal temperature. Stimulation of thyroid function thus appears as an immediate adaptative mechanism to cold, not only in the dramatic situations used in experimental studies, but also after short and relatively mild exposure, simulating conditions which are encountered ordinarily by many people living in cold countries.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.66-7
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Seasonal variations in the caloric intake of dogs living in an arctic environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297342
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-61-33. 10 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
October 1961
adequately compensate for the elevated thermal demands of. the arctic winter (i. e., ~e increased insulation would so minimize the rate of heat loss that even severe cold exposure would not necessitate a compensatory increase in metabolic rate). This assumption is· largely derived from a series of
  1 document  
Author
Durrer, John L.
Hannon, John P.
Author Affiliation
Physiology Department, Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory
Source
Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Alaskan Air Command. Fort Wainwright, Alaska. Technical report TR-61-33. 10 p.
Date
October 1961
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
679860
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Animals
Dogs
Caloric intake
Cold exposure
Abstract
The seasonal variations in the average daily caloric intake and body weight of five Husky dogs and five Beagle dogs were measured over twelve and eight-month periods, respectively, during which the average monthly temperature ranged from +17° to -22° c. The caloric intake of the Huskies rose from a midsummer low of 49 Cal./day to a November high of 87 Cal./day. Mid- and late winter values averaged about 79 Cal./day. During late winter there was no relationship between the day to day temperature and caloric intake. In the Beagles, acute and later chronic exposure to cold in March caused a marked increase (80 to 131 Cal./day) in caloric intake. They, like the Huskies, tended toward minimum values (85 Cal./day) during the summer. With the onset of winter the Beagles increased their intake to a high of 144 Cal./day in November. Overall, these data showed that the relative magnitude of the seasonal changes were quite similar in both groups of dogs and suggested that seasonal changes in insulation are supplementary to seasonal changes in caloric intake.
Notes
UAA - ALASKA RC955.U9 no.61-33
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Ten-day cold exposures develop adaptation-compensatory mechanisms of regulation of heat exchange and breathing

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102308
Source
Pages 312-317 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part I, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
Adaptation 60 I 200 I TEN-DAY COLD EXPOSURES DEVELOP ADAPTATION-COMPENSATORY MECHANISMS OF REGULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGE AND BREATHING Liudmila T. Kovtoun and Ser9ey G. Krivoschekov Institute of PhY';ology, S;berian Bro' of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences lnta1Wt:iq1uil Journal ef
  1 document  
Author
Kovtoun, L.T
Krivoschekov, S.G
Author Affiliation
Institute of Physiology, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
Source
Pages 312-317 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part I, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(2)
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
Cold exposure
Thermoregulation
Ventilatory chemosensitivity
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to determine types of general cold adaptation and to reveal adaptation-compensatory regulation mechanisms of heat exchange and breathing. 24 healthy subjects were tested. Thermoregulation and gas exchange was measured before, during, and after a 10-day cold exposure (13°C, 2h). Before and after cold exposures, the ventilatory CO2 and O2 sensitivity was measured by the rebreathing method. The gas-analyser Eos Sprint ("Erich Jaeger", Germany) was used. The whole group exhibited the hypothermic isoinsulative adaptation type: during cold exposure Tre decreased (P
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