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Acute fatal effects of short-lasting extreme temperatures in Stockholm, Sweden: evidence across a century of change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107127
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Nov;24(6):820-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Daniel Oudin Åström
Bertil Forsberg
Sören Edvinsson
Joacim Rocklöv
Author Affiliation
From the aDepartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; bAgeing and Living Conditions Programme, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; cCentre for Population Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; and dDepartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Nov;24(6):820-9
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Extreme Cold - adverse effects
Extreme Heat - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Risk
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of extreme weather events. Short-term effects of extreme hot and cold weather and their effects on mortality have been thoroughly documented, as have epidemiologic and demographic changes throughout the 20th century. We investigated whether sensitivity to episodes of extreme heat and cold has changed in Stockholm, Sweden, from the beginning of the 20th century until the present.
We collected daily mortality and temperature data for the period 1901-2009 for present-day Stockholm County, Sweden. Heat extremes were defined as days for which the 2-day moving average of mean temperature was above the 98th percentile; cold extremes were defined as days for which the 26-day moving average was below the 2nd percentile. The relationship between extreme hot/cold temperatures and all-cause mortality, stratified by decade, sex, and age, was investigated through time series modeling, adjusting for time trends.
Total daily mortality was higher during heat extremes in all decades, with a declining trend over time in the relative risk associated with heat extremes, leveling off during the last three decades. The relative risk of mortality was higher during cold extremes for the entire period, with a more dispersed pattern across decades. Unlike for heat extremes, there was no decline in the mortality with cold extremes over time.
Although the relative risk of mortality during extreme temperature events appears to have fallen, such events still pose a threat to public health.
PubMed ID
24051892 View in PubMed
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Acute impacts of extreme temperature exposure on emergency room admissions related to mental and behavior disorders in Toronto, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256377
Source
J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb;155:154-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Xiang Wang
Eric Lavigne
Hélène Ouellette-kuntz
Bingshu E Chen
Author Affiliation
Public Health Agency of Canada, Centre for Food-Borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Environmental Issues Division, Canada; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Queen's University, Canada. Electronic address: wanqus@gmail.com.
Source
J Affect Disord. 2014 Feb;155:154-61
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Cities
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Extreme Cold - adverse effects
Extreme Heat - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Mental Disorders - therapy
Middle Aged
Nonlinear Dynamics
Poisson Distribution
Regression Analysis
Risk
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of extreme ambient temperature on hospital emergency room visits (ER) related to mental and behavioral illnesses in Toronto, Canada.
A time series study was conducted using health and climatic data from 2002 to 2010 in Toronto, Canada. Relative risks (RRs) for increases in emergency room (ER) visits were estimated for specific mental and behavioral diseases (MBD) after exposure to hot and cold temperatures while using the 50th percentile of the daily mean temperature as reference. Poisson regression models using a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) were used. We adjusted for the effects of seasonality, humidity, day-of-the-week and outdoor air pollutants.
We found a strong association between MBD ER visits and mean daily temperature at 28?C. The association was strongest within a period of 0-4 days for exposure to hot temperatures. A 29% (RR=1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.53) increase in MBD ER vists was observed over a cumulative period of 7 days after exposure to high ambient temperature (99th percentile vs. 50th percentile). Similar associations were reported for schizophrenia, mood, and neurotic disorers. No significant associations with cold temperatures were reported.
The ecological nature and the fact that only one city was investigated.
Our findings suggest that extreme temperature poses a risk to the health and wellbeing for individuals with mental and behavior illnesses. Patient management and education may need to be improved as extreme temperatures may become more prevalent with climate change.
PubMed ID
24332428 View in PubMed
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Adaptive dimensions of health research among indigenous Siberians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78876
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Mar-Apr;19(2):165-80
Publication Type
Article
Author
Snodgrass J Josh
Sorensen Mark V
Tarskaia Larissa A
Leonard William R
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA. jjosh@uoregon.edu
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2007 Mar-Apr;19(2):165-80
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization - physiology
Arctic Regions
Basal Metabolism
Biomedical research
Cold - adverse effects
Cold Climate - adverse effects
Culture
Geography
Humans
Life Style
Population Groups
Siberia
Time Factors
Abstract
Present evidence suggests that modern humans were the first hominid species to successfully colonize high-latitude environments (> or =55 degrees N). Given evidence for a recent (
PubMed ID
17286259 View in PubMed
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Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2001 Aug;60(3):413-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
I. Holmér
Author Affiliation
Program for Respiratory Health and Climate Research, National Institute for Working Life, Solna, Sweden.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2001 Aug;60(3):413-21
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Arctic Regions
Cold - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Hypothermia - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Male
Primary prevention - methods
Risk assessment
Stress, Psychological
Sweden
PubMed ID
11590883 View in PubMed
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Chlorpromazine-induced alterations in hypothalamic amine metabolism and stress responses in severe cold.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12418
Source
Z Rechtsmed. 1989;102(6):377-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989
Author
M L Kortelainen
T. Lapinlampi
J. Hirvonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Z Rechtsmed. 1989;102(6):377-90
Date
1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arousal - drug effects
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Body Temperature Regulation - drug effects
Chlorpromazine - toxicity
Cold - adverse effects
Dopamine - metabolism
Epinephrine - metabolism
Glycogen - metabolism
Guinea Pigs
Homovanillic Acid - metabolism
Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid - metabolism
Hypothalamus - drug effects
Liver Glycogen - metabolism
Male
Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol - metabolism
Muscles - drug effects
Neurotransmitter Agents - metabolism
Norepinephrine - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Serotonin - metabolism
Vitreous Body - drug effects
Abstract
To investigate the effects on the central nervous system of severe cold stress with and without chlorpromazine, guinea pigs were treated with chlorpromazine or 0.9% NaCl and exposed to -20 degrees C or +23 degrees C for 1 h. Hypothalamic noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl ethylene glycol (MHPG), homovanillinic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum, urinary and vitreous fluid catecholamines, muscle and liver glycogen, and blood glucose were also measured. Chlorpromazine caused distinct hypothermia at -20 degrees C and slight hypothermia at +23 degrees C. The rise in hypothalamic MHPG, 5-HIAA and MHPG/NA and in 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios in the cold indicate increased noradrenergic and serotonergic activity. The latter was inhibited by chlorpromazine and a drug-induced inhibition of noradrenergic neurons could not be ruled out. Chlorpromazine increased the turnover of DA at room temperature and the same tendency was seen in the cold. The hypothermic animals had low serum catecholamines, indicating diminished sympathetic activity. The chlorpromazine-treated cold-exposed animals did not react to the environmental stress by sympathetic activation, as urinary NA and adrenaline were not elevated, but DA was excreted by all the drug-treated animals. Vitreous fluid NA and DA were elevated as an indicator of cold stress, and no drug effect was seen in this fluid.
PubMed ID
2472037 View in PubMed
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Cognitive and physiological feedback on cold pain tolerance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51700
Source
Pages 539-541 in B.D. Postl et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 90. Proceedings of the International Congress on Circumpolar Health, 8th, Whitehorse, Yukon, May 20-25, 1990. Arctic Medical Research 1991; Suppl.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
  1 document  
Author
B. Kappes
J. Michaud
S. Theno
Author Affiliation
University of Alaska, Anchorage.
Source
Pages 539-541 in B.D. Postl et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 90. Proceedings of the International Congress on Circumpolar Health, 8th, Whitehorse, Yukon, May 20-25, 1990. Arctic Medical Research 1991; Suppl.
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Biofeedback (Psychology)
Cognition
Cold - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Pain - etiology - psychology
Abstract
Results supported the relevancy of cognitive information effects on pain tolerance, in that subjects who were given a rational and accurate explanation of what to expect showed greater tolerance than those who received irrelevant information. Accurate monitoring of hand temperature did not seem necessarily advantagous as an influence on pain tolerance. It appears merely watching a monitor, regardless of the specific contents of the screen, resulted in longer hand immersion times when compared to no monitor. The monitors seem to serve as distractors and specificity of physiological information was not particularly useful. However, neither information nor physiological monitoring emerged as the primary influence on pain tolerance in this study. Instead, the strongest predictors found were motivation and self-efficacy. The subject's own self prediction of anticipated performance with cold induced pain was closely consistent with actual performance. Although these results alone may not generalize to extended field situations, this study does reinforce the general findings of previous research: namely Bandura's (10) evidence on self-efficacy. While it is obvious cold temperatures have measurable physiological consequences, the experience of pain is also psychologically mediated. Pain associated with cold injury and frostbite in hospital studies show personality correlates are significantly related to the frequency, severity and tragedy of subsequent results (15). A replication of this study will include male subjects even though it is anticipated that findings will be consistent, with perhaps longer immersion times. Future research may want to develop training strategies aimed at teaching self-efficacy and realistic expectations of potential consequences in cold environments rather than scare tactics regarding physiological and psychological cold pain tolerance.
PubMed ID
1365219 View in PubMed
Documents
Less detail
Source
Lakartidningen. 1993 Jun 16;90(24):2294
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-16-1993

Cold air inhalation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in relationship to metacholine bronchial responsiveness: different patterns in asthmatic children and children with other chronic lung diseases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15737
Source
Respir Med. 1998 Feb;92(2):308-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998
Author
K H Carlsen
G. Engh
M. Mørk
E. Schrøder
Author Affiliation
Voksentoppen Centre of Asthma, Allergy and Chronic Lung Diseases, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Respir Med. 1998 Feb;92(2):308-15
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma, Exercise-Induced - diagnosis
Bronchial Provocation Tests
Bronchoconstrictor Agents - diagnostic use
Child
Cold - adverse effects
Diagnosis, Differential
Exercise Tolerance
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Lung - physiopathology
Lung Diseases, Obstructive - diagnosis - physiopathology
Male
Methacholine Chloride - diagnostic use
Predictive value of tests
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
Cold air inhalation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) have both been used as measures of bronchial responsiveness. Both stimuli are often combined in the Nordic climate. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the climatic influence of cold temperatures upon exercise-induced asthma. The secondary aims were: (a) to assess metacholine bronchial hyper-responsiveness and EIB in children with bronchial asthma (n = 32; mean age 10.8 years) compared to children with other chronic lung diseases (CLD) (n = 26, mean age 10.1 years); and (b) to assess the influence of cold air inhalation upon EIB in the two groups of children. Methods used were: (a) the metacholine concentration causing a reduction in FEV1 of 20% (PC20-M), (b) maximum FEV1 fall (delta FEV1) after submaximal treadmill run (EIB test); and (c) delta FEV1 after submaximal treadmill run while inhaling cold (-20 degrees C) dry air (CA-EIB test). Geometric mean PC20-M did not differ significantly between the asthma children (1.28 mg ml-1) and the CLD children (2.90 mg ml-1). In the asthma children, mean delta FEV1 after EIB test was 12.8% vs 21.8% after adding cold air (P
PubMed ID
9616531 View in PubMed
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75 records – page 1 of 8.