This study assessed the intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning of a three-couple expedition group that included a 2 1/2-year-old child which was ice-locked on a boat in the High Arctic during a major portion of the expedition. Personality assessment indicated that team members were generally well adjusted, scoring relatively higher on well-being and achievement and relatively lower on stress reactivity. Weekly mood ratings showed that the group exhibited significantly higher positive than negative affect. Reported negative events were relatively most frequent at the beginning of the Arctic stay and toward the end of the darkness period and were lowest during the initial darkness interval. The period of darkness had both a salutary and negative impact. A highly important means of coping with stress was seeking emotional support from one's partner. Selection of couples with strong bonds with their partner appears to be one viable approach for crew selection for long-duration missions.
AIM: To specify a 24-h profile of arterial pressure (AP) in hypertensive patients working in duty regime in the Far North (Tyumen Region). MATERIAL AND METHODS: AP parameters were studied in 155 males aged 25-59 with hypertension of stage I, II who were employed for duty work in the Far North areas and 38 control patients with hypertension stage I, II living in a moderate climatic zone (Tyumen). The groups were comparable by gender, age, duration of hypertension, office systolic and diastolic AP (SAP and DAP). All the patients have undergone 24-h monitoring of AP with assessment of basic mean parameters. RESULTS: The study group patients had scare symptoms and lower mean 24-h SAP, but high AP variability, high DAD as reflection of more significant structural changes of vessels and special functioning of the autonomic nervous system in the North. Mean 24-h AP showed more unfavourable changes in hypertensive subjects who had flight from Yamburg-Moscow-Yamburg. CONCLUSION: The data of the study dictate the necessity to develop a differentiated risk strategy for health promotion, prevention and treatment of hypertension in those who work in the North of Tyumen Region in duty regime.
Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep). Our strategy is based on ecologically guided search for compounds through studies of physiology and organism interactions coupled to identification of bioactive molecules guided by especially in vivo assays. The research programme originated in the beginning of the 1980s with a broad screening of Swedish marine organisms using both in vitro and in vivo assays, resulting in isolation and identification of several different bioactive molecules. Two congenerous cyclopeptides, i.e. barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin, were isolated from the deep-sea sponge Geodia barretti, and structurally elucidated, guided by their antifouling activity and their affinity to a selection of human serotonin receptors. To optimize the activity a number of analogues of barettin were synthezised and tested for antifouling activity. Within the EU project BlueGenics, two larger homologous peptides, barrettides A and B, were isolated from G. baretti. Also, metabolic fingerprinting combined with sponge systematics was used to further study deep-sea natural product diversity in the genus Geodia. Finally, the chemical property space model 'ChemGPS-NP' has been developed and used in our research group, enabling a more efficient use of obtained compounds and exploration of possible biological activities and targets. Another approach is the broad application of phylogenetic frameworks, which can be used in prediction of where-in which organisms-to search for novel molecules or better sources of known molecules in marine organisms. In a further perspective, the deeper understanding of evolution and development of life on Earth can also provide answers to why marine organisms produce specific molecules.
To understand better the link between atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate over geological time, records of past CO2 are reconstructed from geochemical proxies. Although these records have provided us with a broad picture of CO2 variation throughout the Phanerozoic eon (the past 544 Myr), inconsistencies and gaps remain that still need to be resolved. Here I present a continuous 300-Myr record of stomatal abundance from fossil leaves of four genera of plants that are closely related to the present-day Ginkgo tree. Using the known relationship between leaf stomatal abundance and growing season CO2 concentrations, I reconstruct past atmospheric CO2 concentrations. For the past 300 Myr, only two intervals of low CO2 (2,000 p.p.m.v.) concentrations. These results are consistent with some reconstructions of past CO2 (refs 1, 2) and palaeotemperature records, but suggest that CO2 reconstructions based on carbon isotope proxies may be compromised by episodic outbursts of isotopically light methane. These results support the role of water vapour, methane and CO2 in greenhouse climate warming over the past 300 Myr.
Comment In: Nature. 2001 May 17;411(6835):247-811357108
For determinination of the significance of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) among the conscripts in the North was performed a comparative study of 101 volunteers who had no complaints and urinary tract infection (UTI) and a history of 206 patients treated at the stationary UTI. Diagnostically important AB in soldiers was 3% and corresponded to inflammation of the urethra and prostate. Negative impact of subextreme conditions of service in the development of AB from the soldiers in the 12 months has not been established. AB in young men in 27% of such cases was accompanied by leukocyturia, in 36% with bacteriuria, determined by the overall analysis of urine, which is a comprehensive method of identifying the primary UTI.
Results of hospital check-up and treatment of female soldiers, female members of servicemen's family and retirees of Ministry of Defence of Russian Federation were analyzed for the purpose of improvement of prophylaxis, treatment of urinary tract infections and estimation of factors of military service in the progress of UTI in female soldiers in conditions of North. It was determined that in the structure of UTI in female soldiers aged before 40 prevail acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis combined with phologistic gynaecological abnormality, aged after 40 - chronic pyelonephritis combined with concomitant urolithiasis and chronic cystitis. Factors of military service influence on the progress of acute UTI and early approach of chronic UTI in female soldiers.