Using population data (N = 11,562) drawn from five Canadian gambling prevalence surveys conducted between 2000 and 2005, the current study investigated the relationship between irrational gambling cognitions and risky gambling practices upon (a) gambling intensity, as measured by percent of income spent on gambling and (b) tolerance, a diagnostic indicator of pathological gambling. First, we found irrational gambling cognitions and risky gambling practices to be positively related. Second, irrational gambling cognitions moderated the relationship between risky gambling practices and gambling intensity. Specifically, people engaging in risky practices, spent less of their income on gambling when they had fewer irrational gambling cognitions compared to those with more irrational cognitions. Third, irrational gambling cognitions moderated the relationship between risky gambling practices and tolerance. Of the people engaging in risky practices, those with no irrational cognitions reported lower levels of tolerance than those with at least one irrational cognition. Interactions with gender are reported and discussed. These findings demonstrate the importance of both gambling cognitions and gambling practices upon the intensity of gambling and pathological gambling.
Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Uppsala University, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit, Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND), Karolinska Institutet, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents.
The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students' self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables.
Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model.
Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.