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27 records – page 1 of 3.

Aphasia, depression, and non-verbal cognitive impairment in ischaemic stroke.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46149
Source
Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000 Nov-Dec;10(6):455-61
Publication Type
Article
Author
M L Kauhanen
J T Korpelainen
P. Hiltunen
R. Määttä
H. Mononen
E. Brusin
K A Sotaniemi
V V Myllylä
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurology, University of Oulu, Finland. marja-liisa.kauhanen@fimnet.fi
Source
Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000 Nov-Dec;10(6):455-61
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aphasia - epidemiology - psychology
Brain Ischemia - epidemiology - psychology
Cerebrovascular Accident - epidemiology - psychology
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Depression - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology
Female
Frail Elderly
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Aphasia, depression, and cognitive dysfunction are common consequences of stroke, but knowledge of their interrelationship is limited. This 1-year prospective study was designed to evaluate prevalence and course of post-stroke aphasia and to study its psychiatric, neurological, and cognitive correlates. We studied a series of 106 consecutive patients (46 women and 60 men, mean age 65. 8 years) with first-ever ischaemic brain infarction. The patients were clinically examined, and presence and type of aphasia were evaluated during the 1st week after stroke and 3 and 12 months later. Psychiatric and neuropsychological evaluations were performed 3 and 12 months after stroke. Aphasia was diagnosed in 34% of the patients during the acute phase, and two thirds of them remained so 12 months later. Seventy percent of the aphasic patients fulfilled the DSM-III-R criteria of depression 3 months and 62% 12 months after stroke. The prevalence of major depression increased from 11 to 33% during the 12-month follow-up period. The non-verbal neuropsychological test performance in the aphasic patients was significantly inferior to that of the patients with dominant hemisphere lesion without aphasia. One third of the patients with ischaemic stroke suffer from communicative disorders which seem to increase the risk of depression and non-verbal cognitive deficits. Although the prevalence of depression in aphasic patients decreases in the long term, the proportion of patients suffering from major depression seems to increase. We emphasize the importance of the multidimensional evaluation of aphasic stroke patients.
PubMed ID
11070376 View in PubMed
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Assessing the outcome of compulsory treatment orders on management of psychiatric patients at 2 McGill University-associated hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123619
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2012 Jun;57(6):359-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Arash Nakhost
John Christopher Perry
Daniel Frank
Author Affiliation
McGill University, Institute of Community and Family Psychiatry, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2012 Jun;57(6):359-65
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Commitment of Mentally Ill - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Community Mental Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitals, University
Humans
Insanity Defense
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Middle Aged
Patient Readmission - statistics & numerical data
Personality Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Prisoners - psychology
Psychiatric Department, Hospital
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Quebec
Retrospective Studies
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - therapy
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Some literature suggests that compulsory community treatment orders (CTOs) are effective in reducing hospitalizations in a subgroup of psychiatric patients with histories of repeated hospitalization, allowing them to be treated in the community under less restrictive measures. However, studies have yielded contradictory findings, in part because of methodological differences. Our study examines the effectiveness of CTOs in reducing hospitalizations and increasing community tenure of such patients.
The sample included all psychiatric patients who had been given a CTO during a 9-year period at 2 of McGill University's hospitals. This is a naturalistic, observational, retrospective, before-and-after study where patients acted as their own control subjects. We examined variables, including the number, duration, and time to psychiatric admissions, comparing 4 time periods: early, pre-index, index (when the first CTO was in force), and post-index periods. The total study duration per subject encompasses the longest period of observation within existing studies in Canada.
Psychiatric patients with histories of frequent readmissions demonstrated a significant reduction in their number of hospitalizations as well as an increase in the median time to re-hospitalization, during the period when they were treated under a CTO. This effect of CTO was sustained even after the CTO had expired.
Our study suggests that CTOs are effective in assisting psychiatric patients with histories of repeated hospitalizations to live and be treated in the community, diminishing the occurrence of frequent hospitalization.
PubMed ID
22682573 View in PubMed
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The association between depression, anxiety, and cognitive function in the elderly general population--the Hordaland Health Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45650
Source
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;20(10):989-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2005
Author
Eva Biringer
Arnstein Mykletun
Alv A Dahl
A David Smith
Knut Engedal
Harald A Nygaard
Anders Lund
Author Affiliation
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Norway. eva.biringer@psyk.uib.no
Source
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;20(10):989-97
Date
Oct-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anxiety - epidemiology - psychology
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Depression - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Norway - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between depression and/or anxiety and cognitive function in the elderly general population. SUBJECTS: Non-demented participants from the general population (n = 1,930) aged 72-74 years. METHODS: Symptoms and caseness of depression and anxiety disorder were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Cognitive function was assessed by the Digit Symbol Test (modified version), the Kendrick Object Learning Test, and the 'S'-task from the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. RESULTS: There was a significant association between depression and reduced cognitive function. The inverse association between anxiety and reduced cognitive performance was explained by adjustment for co-morbid depression. The inverse association between depressive symptoms and cognitive function was found to be close to linear, and was also present in the sub-clinical symptom range. Males were more affected cognitively by depressive symptoms than females. CONCLUSION: The inverse association between depression and cognitive function is not only a finding restricted to severely ill patient samples, but it can also be found in the elderly general population.
PubMed ID
16163751 View in PubMed
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Association between exposure to work stressors and cognitive performance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258897
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2014 Apr;56(4):354-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Marko Vuori
Ritva Akila
Virpi Kalakoski
Jaana Pentti
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Mikko Härmä
Sampsa Puttonen
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2014 Apr;56(4):354-60
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hospitals
Humans
Middle Aged
Personnel, Hospital - psychology
Questionnaires
Stress, Psychological - psychology
Abstract
To examine the association between work stress and cognitive performance.
Cognitive performance of a total of 99 women (mean age = 47.3 years) working in hospital wards at either the top or bottom quartiles of job strain was assessed using validated tests that measured learning, short-term memory, and speed of memory retrieval.
The high job strain group (n = 43) had lower performance than the low job strain group (n = 56) in learning (P = 0.025), short-term memory (P = 0.027), and speed of memory retrieval (P = 0.003). After controlling for education level, only the difference in speed of memory retrieval remained statistically significant (P = 0.010).
The association found between job strain and speed of memory retrieval might be one important factor explaining the effect of stress on work performance.
PubMed ID
24709760 View in PubMed
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A Canadian population level analysis of the roles of irrational gambling cognitions and risky gambling practices as correlates of gambling intensity and pathological gambling.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158938
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2008 Sep;24(3):257-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
Natalie V Miller
Shawn R Currie
Author Affiliation
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. nvmiller@ucalgary.ca
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2008 Sep;24(3):257-74
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Causality
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Female
Gambling - psychology
Humans
Impulsive Behavior - epidemiology - psychology
Internal-External Control
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Risk-Taking
Self Concept
Social Problems
Abstract
Using population data (N = 11,562) drawn from five Canadian gambling prevalence surveys conducted between 2000 and 2005, the current study investigated the relationship between irrational gambling cognitions and risky gambling practices upon (a) gambling intensity, as measured by percent of income spent on gambling and (b) tolerance, a diagnostic indicator of pathological gambling. First, we found irrational gambling cognitions and risky gambling practices to be positively related. Second, irrational gambling cognitions moderated the relationship between risky gambling practices and gambling intensity. Specifically, people engaging in risky practices, spent less of their income on gambling when they had fewer irrational gambling cognitions compared to those with more irrational cognitions. Third, irrational gambling cognitions moderated the relationship between risky gambling practices and tolerance. Of the people engaging in risky practices, those with no irrational cognitions reported lower levels of tolerance than those with at least one irrational cognition. Interactions with gender are reported and discussed. These findings demonstrate the importance of both gambling cognitions and gambling practices upon the intensity of gambling and pathological gambling.
PubMed ID
18256906 View in PubMed
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Carotid atherosclerosis predicts lower cognitive test results: a 7-year follow-up study of 4,371 stroke-free subjects - the Tromsø study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128196
Source
Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012;33(2):159-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Kjell Arne Arntzen
Henrik Schirmer
Stein Harald Johnsen
Tom Wilsgaard
Ellisiv B Mathiesen
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway. kjell.a.arntzen@uit.no
Source
Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012;33(2):159-65
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Attention
Carotid Artery Diseases - epidemiology - ultrasonography
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Cognition
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Memory
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Neuropsychological Tests
Norway - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Psychomotor Performance
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Time Factors
Wechsler Scales
Abstract
Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for stroke and subsequent cognitive impairment. Prospective population studies have shown associations between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and stenosis and cognitive decline and dementia in elderly stroke-free persons, whereas results in the middle-aged are conflicting.
In this prospective population-based study, 4,371 stroke-free middle-aged participants underwent carotid ultrasound examination and assessment of vascular risk factors at baseline and were tested for cognitive function 7 years later. Associations between IMT, number of plaques and total plaque area and cognitive test scores on verbal memory test, digit symbol-coding test and tapping test were assessed in linear regression models.
In the multivariable analyses adjusted for sex, age, education, depression and vascular risk factors, the presence of plaques was significantly associated with lower test scores on the verbal memory test (p = 0.01) and on the digit symbol-coding test (p = 0.03). The number of plaques (p = 0.01) and the total plaque area (p = 0.02) were associated with lower scores on the verbal memory test. No significant association was seen between common carotid artery IMT and cognitive test scores. The tapping test was not associated with the carotid ultrasound variables.
In this middle-aged general population, subclinical carotid atherosclerosis measured as the presence of plaques, number of plaques and total plaque area were independent long-term predictors of lower cognitive test scores.
PubMed ID
22222422 View in PubMed
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Catastrophizing as a cognitive vulnerability factor related to depression in workers' compensation patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153523
Source
J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2008 Sep;15(3):182-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
Eun-Jeong Lee
Ming-Yi Wu
Gloria K Lee
Gladys Cheing
Fong Chan
Author Affiliation
Institute of Psychology, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3105 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616, USA. elee20@iit.edu
Source
J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2008 Sep;15(3):182-92
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Alberta - epidemiology
Chronic Disease
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology - psychology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - psychology
Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Pain Measurement - methods - statistics & numerical data
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - psychology
Workers' Compensation - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of catastrophizing as a mediator and moderator between life stress and depression in a sample of workers' compensation patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Pain intensity, life stress (especially work and financial stress), and catastrophizing contributed significantly to depression. Catastrophizing was found to be partially mediating the relationship between life stress and depression and a moderator between social stress and depression. The results supported the role of catastrophizing as a cognitive vulnerability-stress factor related to depression in chronic pain patients. Screening for life stress and intervening early to prevent catastrophizing from occurring in the workers' compensation rehabilitation process may reduce psychosocial distress and enhance the overall effectiveness of rehabilitation programming for workers' compensation patients with chronic pain.
PubMed ID
19104963 View in PubMed
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Child maltreatment investigations involving parents with cognitive impairments in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138858
Source
Child Maltreat. 2011 Feb;16(1):21-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
David McConnell
Maurice Feldman
Marjorie Aunos
Narasimha Prasad
Author Affiliation
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. david.mcconnell@ualberta.ca
Source
Child Maltreat. 2011 Feb;16(1):21-32
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Abuse - statistics & numerical data
Child Welfare - statistics & numerical data
Child of Impaired Parents - statistics & numerical data
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mass Screening - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Parent-Child Relations
Parents - education
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The authors examined decision making and service referral in child maltreatment investigations involving children of parents with cognitive impairments using the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003) core-data. The CIS-2003 includes process and outcome data on a total of 1,243 child investigations (n = 1,170 weighted) in which parental cognitive impairment was noted. Employing binary logistic regression analyses, the authors found that perceived parent noncooperation was the most potent predictor of court application. Alternative dispute resolution was rarely utilized. The findings from this study highlight the need for development and utilization of alternative dispute resolution strategies, worker training, dissemination of evidence-based parent training programs, and implementation of strategies to alleviate poverty and strengthen the social relationships of parents with cognitive impairments and promote a healthy start to life for their children.
PubMed ID
21131633 View in PubMed
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The danger of being inattentive - ADHD symptoms and risky sexual behaviour in Russian adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295504
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2018 01; 47:42-48
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2018
Author
J Isaksson
A Stickley
R Koposov
V Ruchkin
Author Affiliation
Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Uppsala University, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit, Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND), Karolinska Institutet, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: johan.isaksson@neuro.uu.se.
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2018 01; 47:42-48
Date
01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Attention
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Impulsive Behavior
Male
Parenting - psychology
Probability
Risk
Risk-Taking
Russia - epidemiology
Self Report
Students - psychology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Unsafe Sex - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents.
The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students' self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables.
Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model.
Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.
PubMed ID
29100171 View in PubMed
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Do depressive symptoms predict mortality in older people?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147617
Source
Aging Ment Health. 2009 Sep;13(5):674-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Philip D St John
Patrick R Montgomery
Author Affiliation
Section of Geriatrics, Health Sciences Centre, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3A 1R9, Canada. pstjohn@hsc.mb.ca
Source
Aging Ment Health. 2009 Sep;13(5):674-81
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Affect
Aged
Aging - psychology
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder - mortality - psychology
Female
Geriatric Assessment - methods - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Predictive value of tests
Proportional Hazards Models
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Survival Rate
Abstract
Depressive symptoms are common in older persons, and may predict mortality.
To determine: (1) If depressive symptoms predict mortality; (2) If there is a gradient in this effect; and (3) Which depressive factors predict mortality.
In 1991-1992, 1751 community-dwelling older persons, sampled from a population-based registry, were interviewed.
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression (CES-D), age, gender, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, self-rated health, and functional status.
Time to death.
Those scoring 16+ on the CES-D were considered depressed. To determine if a gradient was present, the CES-D was treated as a continuous variable. Four depressive factors from the CES-D (depressed affect, positive affect, somatic, and interpersonal) were analyzed. Cox regression models were constructed.
The mortality in those with depressive symptoms was higher in those without depressive symptoms (Hazard Ratio of 1.71, p
PubMed ID
19882405 View in PubMed
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27 records – page 1 of 3.