Aphasia, depression, and cognitive dysfunction are common consequences of stroke, but knowledge of their interrelationship is limited. This 1-year prospective study was designed to evaluate prevalence and course of post-stroke aphasia and to study its psychiatric, neurological, and cognitive correlates. We studied a series of 106 consecutive patients (46 women and 60 men, mean age 65. 8 years) with first-ever ischaemic brain infarction. The patients were clinically examined, and presence and type of aphasia were evaluated during the 1st week after stroke and 3 and 12 months later. Psychiatric and neuropsychological evaluations were performed 3 and 12 months after stroke. Aphasia was diagnosed in 34% of the patients during the acute phase, and two thirds of them remained so 12 months later. Seventy percent of the aphasic patients fulfilled the DSM-III-R criteria of depression 3 months and 62% 12 months after stroke. The prevalence of major depression increased from 11 to 33% during the 12-month follow-up period. The non-verbal neuropsychological test performance in the aphasic patients was significantly inferior to that of the patients with dominant hemisphere lesion without aphasia. One third of the patients with ischaemic stroke suffer from communicative disorders which seem to increase the risk of depression and non-verbal cognitive deficits. Although the prevalence of depression in aphasic patients decreases in the long term, the proportion of patients suffering from major depression seems to increase. We emphasize the importance of the multidimensional evaluation of aphasic stroke patients.
Some literature suggests that compulsory community treatment orders (CTOs) are effective in reducing hospitalizations in a subgroup of psychiatric patients with histories of repeated hospitalization, allowing them to be treated in the community under less restrictive measures. However, studies have yielded contradictory findings, in part because of methodological differences. Our study examines the effectiveness of CTOs in reducing hospitalizations and increasing community tenure of such patients.
The sample included all psychiatric patients who had been given a CTO during a 9-year period at 2 of McGill University's hospitals. This is a naturalistic, observational, retrospective, before-and-after study where patients acted as their own control subjects. We examined variables, including the number, duration, and time to psychiatric admissions, comparing 4 time periods: early, pre-index, index (when the first CTO was in force), and post-index periods. The total study duration per subject encompasses the longest period of observation within existing studies in Canada.
Psychiatric patients with histories of frequent readmissions demonstrated a significant reduction in their number of hospitalizations as well as an increase in the median time to re-hospitalization, during the period when they were treated under a CTO. This effect of CTO was sustained even after the CTO had expired.
Our study suggests that CTOs are effective in assisting psychiatric patients with histories of repeated hospitalizations to live and be treated in the community, diminishing the occurrence of frequent hospitalization.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between depression and/or anxiety and cognitive function in the elderly general population. SUBJECTS: Non-demented participants from the general population (n = 1,930) aged 72-74 years. METHODS: Symptoms and caseness of depression and anxiety disorder were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Cognitive function was assessed by the Digit Symbol Test (modified version), the Kendrick Object Learning Test, and the 'S'-task from the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. RESULTS: There was a significant association between depression and reduced cognitive function. The inverse association between anxiety and reduced cognitive performance was explained by adjustment for co-morbid depression. The inverse association between depressive symptoms and cognitive function was found to be close to linear, and was also present in the sub-clinical symptom range. Males were more affected cognitively by depressive symptoms than females. CONCLUSION: The inverse association between depression and cognitive function is not only a finding restricted to severely ill patient samples, but it can also be found in the elderly general population.
To examine the association between work stress and cognitive performance.
Cognitive performance of a total of 99 women (mean age = 47.3 years) working in hospital wards at either the top or bottom quartiles of job strain was assessed using validated tests that measured learning, short-term memory, and speed of memory retrieval.
The high job strain group (n = 43) had lower performance than the low job strain group (n = 56) in learning (P = 0.025), short-term memory (P = 0.027), and speed of memory retrieval (P = 0.003). After controlling for education level, only the difference in speed of memory retrieval remained statistically significant (P = 0.010).
The association found between job strain and speed of memory retrieval might be one important factor explaining the effect of stress on work performance.
Using population data (N = 11,562) drawn from five Canadian gambling prevalence surveys conducted between 2000 and 2005, the current study investigated the relationship between irrational gambling cognitions and risky gambling practices upon (a) gambling intensity, as measured by percent of income spent on gambling and (b) tolerance, a diagnostic indicator of pathological gambling. First, we found irrational gambling cognitions and risky gambling practices to be positively related. Second, irrational gambling cognitions moderated the relationship between risky gambling practices and gambling intensity. Specifically, people engaging in risky practices, spent less of their income on gambling when they had fewer irrational gambling cognitions compared to those with more irrational cognitions. Third, irrational gambling cognitions moderated the relationship between risky gambling practices and tolerance. Of the people engaging in risky practices, those with no irrational cognitions reported lower levels of tolerance than those with at least one irrational cognition. Interactions with gender are reported and discussed. These findings demonstrate the importance of both gambling cognitions and gambling practices upon the intensity of gambling and pathological gambling.
Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for stroke and subsequent cognitive impairment. Prospective population studies have shown associations between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and stenosis and cognitive decline and dementia in elderly stroke-free persons, whereas results in the middle-aged are conflicting.
In this prospective population-based study, 4,371 stroke-free middle-aged participants underwent carotid ultrasound examination and assessment of vascular risk factors at baseline and were tested for cognitive function 7 years later. Associations between IMT, number of plaques and total plaque area and cognitive test scores on verbal memory test, digit symbol-coding test and tapping test were assessed in linear regression models.
In the multivariable analyses adjusted for sex, age, education, depression and vascular risk factors, the presence of plaques was significantly associated with lower test scores on the verbal memory test (p = 0.01) and on the digit symbol-coding test (p = 0.03). The number of plaques (p = 0.01) and the total plaque area (p = 0.02) were associated with lower scores on the verbal memory test. No significant association was seen between common carotid artery IMT and cognitive test scores. The tapping test was not associated with the carotid ultrasound variables.
In this middle-aged general population, subclinical carotid atherosclerosis measured as the presence of plaques, number of plaques and total plaque area were independent long-term predictors of lower cognitive test scores.
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of catastrophizing as a mediator and moderator between life stress and depression in a sample of workers' compensation patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Pain intensity, life stress (especially work and financial stress), and catastrophizing contributed significantly to depression. Catastrophizing was found to be partially mediating the relationship between life stress and depression and a moderator between social stress and depression. The results supported the role of catastrophizing as a cognitive vulnerability-stress factor related to depression in chronic pain patients. Screening for life stress and intervening early to prevent catastrophizing from occurring in the workers' compensation rehabilitation process may reduce psychosocial distress and enhance the overall effectiveness of rehabilitation programming for workers' compensation patients with chronic pain.
The authors examined decision making and service referral in child maltreatment investigations involving children of parents with cognitive impairments using the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003) core-data. The CIS-2003 includes process and outcome data on a total of 1,243 child investigations (n = 1,170 weighted) in which parental cognitive impairment was noted. Employing binary logistic regression analyses, the authors found that perceived parent noncooperation was the most potent predictor of court application. Alternative dispute resolution was rarely utilized. The findings from this study highlight the need for development and utilization of alternative dispute resolution strategies, worker training, dissemination of evidence-based parent training programs, and implementation of strategies to alleviate poverty and strengthen the social relationships of parents with cognitive impairments and promote a healthy start to life for their children.
Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Uppsala University, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit, Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND), Karolinska Institutet, 11330 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents.
The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students' self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables.
Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model.
Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.
Depressive symptoms are common in older persons, and may predict mortality.
To determine: (1) If depressive symptoms predict mortality; (2) If there is a gradient in this effect; and (3) Which depressive factors predict mortality.
In 1991-1992, 1751 community-dwelling older persons, sampled from a population-based registry, were interviewed.
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression (CES-D), age, gender, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, self-rated health, and functional status.
Time to death.
Those scoring 16+ on the CES-D were considered depressed. To determine if a gradient was present, the CES-D was treated as a continuous variable. Four depressive factors from the CES-D (depressed affect, positive affect, somatic, and interpersonal) were analyzed. Cox regression models were constructed.
The mortality in those with depressive symptoms was higher in those without depressive symptoms (Hazard Ratio of 1.71, p